# Impact Resistance of Fibre Reinforced Composite Railway Freight Tank Wagons

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Composite Freight Tank Wagons

- Increased profits due to larger deliveries, less constrained by freight train length and weight;
- A reduction in the total number of train movements required as more cargo is transported at a time, reducing operational costs, life cycle costs and energy consumption.

## 3. Impact Performance of Composites

## 4. Methodology

#### 4.1. Preparation of Test Specimens

#### 4.2. Preloading

#### 4.3. Impact Testing

## 5. Results

#### 5.1. Damage Modes

#### 5.2. Peak Force

#### 5.3. Absorbed Energy

#### 5.4. Penetration Depth

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

- The layup for a composite vessel should be chosen so that the fibres lie parallel to the principal loading directions. This reduces the effect of preloading on the impact performance of the final structure. If $0\xb0$ plies are required, alternatives to filament winding may need to be explored.
- The effect of preloading is only apparent when a composite laminate undergoes high-intensity impacts, initiating fibre rupture and internal delaminations. Therefore, the consideration of preload is only required if the structure will be subjected to large, sustained impact events (such as ballast impact for a freight wagon).
- The addition of preload only appears to be detrimental to matrix cracking and fibre rupture, two failures that are highly driven by initial energy absorption. Therefore, impact-resistant layers to protect the composite should be considered for composite structures that are subjected to a large degree of impact loading.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Nomenclature

$R$ | Vessel external radius (m) |

$T$ | Vessel wall thickness (m) |

${F}_{v}$ | Vehicle loading (N) |

$P$ | Vessel internal pressure (Pa) |

${\sigma}_{v}$ | Vehicle stress (Pa) |

${\sigma}_{\theta}$ | Hoop stress (Pa) |

${\sigma}_{z}$ | Axial stress (Pa) |

${\sigma}_{r}$ | Radial stress (Pa) |

${F}_{z}$ | Specimen axial force (N) |

${F}_{\theta}$ | Specimen hoop force (N) |

${F}_{R}$ | Specimen resistive force (kN) |

${F}_{max}$ | Specimen peak resistive force (kN) |

${A}_{1}$ | Specimen axial area (m^{2}) |

${A}_{2}$ | Specimen hoop area (m^{2}) |

${F}_{b}$ | Bolt force (N) |

${D}_{b}$ | Bolt major diameter (m) |

$c$ | Bolt torque friction coefficient |

${M}_{b}$ | Applied bolt torque (Nm) |

${M}_{\theta}$ | Applied hoop bolt torque (Nm) |

${M}_{z}$ | Applied axial bolt torque (Nm) |

${E}_{i}$ | Impact energy (J) |

${E}_{a}$ | Absorbed energy (J) |

$m$ | Impactor mass (kg) |

$g$ | Acceleration due to gravity (ms^{−2}) |

$H$ | Drop height (m) |

$t$ | Time (s) |

$\delta $ | Penetration depth (mm) |

## Appendix A

Loading Condition | Impact Energy (J) | Peak Force (kN) | Mean Absorbed Energy (J) | Mean Penetration Depth (mm) | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean | Standard Deviation | Mean | Standard Deviation | Mean | Standard Deviation | ||

Unloaded | 7.85 | 3.59 | 0.052 | 2.40 | 0.178 | 0.40 | 0.072 |

11.78 | 3.88 | 0.057 | 5.39 | 0.392 | 1.01 | 0.204 | |

13.75 | 4.08 | 0.068 | 8.72 | 0.634 | 1.67 | 0.084 | |

15.71 | 3.82 | 0.092 | 14.23 | 0.972 | 2.01 | 0.149 | |

Uniaxial loading | 7.85 | 3.63 | 0.159 | 2.53 | 0.100 | 0.44 | 0.083 |

11.78 | 4.03 | 0.104 | 6.81 | 0.365 | 1.65 | 0.291 | |

13.75 | 4.09 | 0.044 | 10.70 | 1.325 | 2.06 | 0.136 | |

15.71 | 3.56 | 0.378 | 17.27 | 0.000 | 2.20 | 0.000 | |

Biaxial loading | 7.85 | 3.63 | 0.243 | 2.27 | 0.632 | 0.42 | 0.079 |

11.78 | 4.12 | 0.130 | 6.26 | 1.700 | 1.80 | 0.134 | |

13.75 | 4.31 | 0.168 | 10.34 | 0.744 | 1.99 | 0.166 | |

15.71 | 3.05 | 1.234 | 17.27 | 0.000 | 2.20 | 0.000 |

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**Figure 2.**The filament winding manufacturing process for the production of large composite cylindrical structures (Source: Spirit AeroSystems).

**Figure 3.**CES material selection chart for fatigue strength at 10

^{7}cycles against specific stiffness for “composites” and “ferrous and non-ferrous metals” with the applied attribute limits of fatigue and fracture toughness constraints. Each of the bubbles represents a material and the large, transparent bubbles represent the labelled bulk material groups.

**Figure 4.**The underside of a composite tank wagon and the associated forces acting on an extracted specimen from the centreline of the vessel. The bogie wheelsets have been removed from the figure to aid clarity.

**Figure 5.**Production of the composite coupons using unidirectional CFRP prepreg, using six oriented plies to attain the desired thickness of 1.85 mm.

**Figure 6.**A schematic of the biaxial rig showing how the combined preloading is applied to the composite specimen.

**Figure 7.**Finite element analysis (FEA) of a composite specimen with normal stresses applied in the (

**a**) axial and (

**b**) hoop directions.

**Figure 8.**A schematic of the Rosand type 5 instrumented drop-weight impact tester experimental setup.

**Figure 9.**Schematic of internal cracks and delaminations that form within a composite laminate after impact [72].

**Figure 11.**Failure modes of a composite specimen for four impact energies: 7.85, 11.78, 13.75 and 15.71 J. The scale of 0–3 represents the degree of failure (0 represents no failure mode observed and 3 represents complete failure).

**Figure 12.**Force, ${F}_{R}$, against time, $t$, graph for an unloaded composite specimen at an impact energy of 7.85 J.

**Figure 13.**Force–time plot for impact energies of 7.85, 11.78, 13.75 and 15.71 J for an unloaded specimen using a five-point moving average trendline. The stars, crosses and arrows indicate the damage threshold level (DTL), peak force (${F}_{max}$) and the end of the impact event (impact duration), respectively.

**Figure 14.**Force–time plot for impact energies of 7.85, 11.78, 13.75 and 15.71 J preloaded in three states: unloaded, uniaxial and biaxial, using a five-point moving average trendline. The stars, crosses and arrows indicate the damage threshold level (DTL), maximum force (${F}_{max}$) and the end of the impact event (impact duration), respectively.

**Figure 15.**Mean peak force, ${F}_{max}$, against impact energy, ${E}_{i}$, shown for three different loading conditions: unloaded, uniaxial loading and biaxial loading.

**Figure 16.**Impact energy absorbed, ${E}_{a}$, against impact energy, ${E}_{i}$, shown for three different loading conditions: unloaded, uniaxial loading and biaxial loading.

**Figure 17.**Penetration depth, $\delta $, against mean absorbed energy, ${E}_{a}$, for three different loading conditions: unloaded, uniaxial loading and biaxial loading. Here, 100% penetration depth corresponds to the laminate through-thickness (1.85 mm).

Parameter | Symbol | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|---|

Vehicle loading | ${F}_{v}$ | $1.500\times {10}^{6}$ | N |

Outer radius of vessel | $R$ | 1.400 | m |

* Vessel wall thickness | $T$ | $6.5\times {10}^{-3}$ | m |

Maximum internal pressure | $P$ | $3\times {10}^{5}$ | Pa |

Specimen axial area | ${A}_{1}$ | $1.80\times {10}^{-4}$ | m^{2} |

Specimen hoop area | ${A}_{2}$ | $1.95\times {10}^{-4}$ | m^{2} |

Load Case | Direction | Stress (MPa) | Force (kN) | Torque (Nm) |
---|---|---|---|---|

Unloaded | Axial | 0.00 | 0.00 | 0.00 |

Hoop | 0.00 | 0.00 | 0.00 | |

Uniaxial preload | Axial | 58.60 | 10.55 | 47.50 |

Hoop | 0.00 | 0.00 | 0.00 | |

Biaxial preload | Axial | 58.60 | 10.55 | 47.50 |

Hoop | 64.60 | 12.62 | 56.80 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Street, G.E.; Mistry, P.J.; Johnson, M.S.
Impact Resistance of Fibre Reinforced Composite Railway Freight Tank Wagons. *J. Compos. Sci.* **2021**, *5*, 152.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5060152

**AMA Style**

Street GE, Mistry PJ, Johnson MS.
Impact Resistance of Fibre Reinforced Composite Railway Freight Tank Wagons. *Journal of Composites Science*. 2021; 5(6):152.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5060152

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Street, George Edward, Preetum Jayantilal Mistry, and Michael Sylvester Johnson.
2021. "Impact Resistance of Fibre Reinforced Composite Railway Freight Tank Wagons" *Journal of Composites Science* 5, no. 6: 152.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5060152