Next Article in Journal
A Machine Learning Model to Detect Flow Disturbances during Manufacturing of Composites by Liquid Moulding
Previous Article in Journal
Fiber Orientation Predictions—A Review of Existing Models
Open AccessReview

Progress of Bio-Calcium Carbonate Waste Eggshell and Seashell Fillers in Polymer Composites: A Review

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4020070
Received: 22 May 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 7 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Polymer Composites)
Disposal of massive amounts of eggshells and seashells from processing industries is a challenge. In recent years, there has been a focus to reuse these waste resources in the production of new thermoplastic and thermoset polymer materials. This paper reviews eggshell and seashell production by country and provides a perspective on the quantity of bio-calcium carbonate that could be produced annually from these wastes. The achievements obtained from the addition of recycled bio-calcium carbonate fillers (uncoated/unmodified) in polymer composites with a focus on tensile strength, flexural strength and impact toughness are discussed. To improve compatibility between calcium carbonate (mineral and bio-based) fillers and polymers, studies on surface modifiers are reviewed. Knowledge gaps and future research and development thoughts are outlined. Developing novel and innovative composites for this waste material could bring additional revenue to egg and seafood processors and at the same time reduce any environmental impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium carbonate; waste eggshells; waste seashells; polymer filler; surface modifiers; composites calcium carbonate; waste eggshells; waste seashells; polymer filler; surface modifiers; composites
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Owuamanam, S.; Cree, D. Progress of Bio-Calcium Carbonate Waste Eggshell and Seashell Fillers in Polymer Composites: A Review. J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4, 70.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop