- freely available
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010005
2. Experimental Program
2.2. Concrete Mix Design
2.3. Variables and Specimen Preparation
2.4. Instrumentation and Test Set-Ups
3. Experimental Results and Discussion
3.1. General Behavior and Backbone Curves
3.2. Failure Mode
3.3. Energy Dissipation and Equivalent Viscous Damping
3.5. Bottom Steel Plate Strains
3.6. SCS Beam Deflection Pattern
- Rubcrete was able to provide similar concrete cracking behavior to that of conventional concrete with no rupture of the steel plates, which could be a lifesaving feature under earthquake loading events. However, LECA concrete showed earlier sudden failure. Using bolted shear connectors instead of welded ones in Rubcrete specimens caused a higher number of cracks that were able to decrease the specimen deformability before failure.
- The peak strength and ultimate displacement of the Rub-W specimen were higher than those of the CC-W specimen by 5% and 17%, respectively, and higher than those of the LECA-W specimen by 17% and 309%, respectively. The LECA-W specimen showed less strength and ultimate displacement by 9.8% and 62.1%, respectively, compared to those of the CC-W specimen. The Rub-B specimen showed lower strength and ultimate displacement by 21.7% and 33.6%, respectively, compared to those of Rub-W specimen.
- Rubcrete was able to increase the energy dissipation of the SCS sandwich beam by an average of 10% compared to that of conventional concrete. The same superiority of Rubcrete energy dissipation was observed when comparing it with that of LECA concrete up to 5 mm displacement. However, beyond 5 mm displacement until the LECA concrete specimen failure, it showed higher energy dissipation than that of Rubcrete by an average of 14%.
- The LECA-W specimen had the lowest ductility of 2.3 due to its premature failure. While the ductility of the conventional concrete specimen CC-W was 4.9, it increased to 6.5 when rubber was added to the mix in specimen Rub-W. Using bolted connectors instead of welded reduced the ductility significantly.
- Specimens Rub-W and LECA-W showed 90% higher steel plate strains than those shown by CC-W specimens. The Rub-W specimen showed 20% higher steel plate strains than the LECA-W specimen.
Conflicts of Interest
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|W/C||Mix Proportions (kg/m3)|
|Displacement at Peak|
|Mode of Failure|
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