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Thermal and Flammability Characteristics of Blended Jatropha Bio-Epoxy as Matrix in Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer

1
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis 02100, Malaysia
3
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
4
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
5
School of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis 02600, Malaysia
6
Aerospace Malaysian Innovative Centre, No. 3-6-01, GMI, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010006
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract

This purpose of this paper was to reveal characteristics of a composite structure containing carbon fiber as a reinforcement and blended synthetic epoxy/bio-epoxy derived from crude jatropha oil as resin and compared with fully synthetic epoxy. The composite structure was prepared by the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding technique and was left to cure for 24 h at room temperature. Both were characterized for their thermal, chemical, and flammable characteristics. The incorporation of jatropha bio-epoxy into the matrix significantly improved the thermal stability between 288–365 °C as obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) test. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) curves showed slight diminution of performances and Tg from DMA tests confirmed well with the trend of Tg obtain by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. On the other hand, the flammability property was rated horizontal burning (HB) which was the same as the fully synthetic composite, but the duration to self-extinguish was halved for the composite with jatropha bio-epoxy. Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) was conducted to determine the difference of functional groups’ spectrum due to bonding type existing on both specimens. Overall, the composite specimen with blended bio-epoxy exhibited better thermal stability, comparable flammability characteristics, and performances. The aim of this paper was to introduce bio-based epoxy as a potential alternative epoxy and to compete with synthetic epoxy so as to minimize the footprint of non-renewable composite. View Full-Text
Keywords: jatropha bio-epoxy; bio-composite; thermal; flammability; bio-matrix jatropha bio-epoxy; bio-composite; thermal; flammability; bio-matrix
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hafiezal, M.R.M.; Khalina, A.; Zurina, Z.A.; Azaman, M.D.M.; Hanafee, Z.M. Thermal and Flammability Characteristics of Blended Jatropha Bio-Epoxy as Matrix in Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer. J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3, 6.

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