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A One Health Approach to Investigating Leptospira Serogroups and Their Spatial Distributions among Humans and Animals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2013–2015

1
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), Washington, DC 20037, USA
2
Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
3
Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor (IPVDF), Secretaria de Agricultura do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul 92990-000, Brazil
4
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
5
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, WHO Collaborating Center for Leptospirosis, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
6
Centro Estadual de Vigilancia Ambiental, Secretaria de Saude do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90610-030, Brazil
7
Centro Estadual de Vigilancia de Saude, Laboratorio Central do Estado Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90450-190, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010042
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract

Leptospirosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Brazil and is widespread throughout rural populations in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This study aimed to identify presumptive infecting Leptospira serogroups in human and animal cases and describe their occurrences within the ecoregions of the state by animal species. Data for human and animal leptospirosis cases were gathered from the government’s passive surveillance systems and presumptive infecting serogroups were identified based on a two-fold titer difference in serogroups in the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) panel. A total of 22 different serogroups were reported across both human and animal cases. Serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae was the most common among humans, while serogroup Sejroe predominated among animal cases, particularly bovines. Each ecoregion had a large distribution of cases, with 51% of the human cases in the Parana–Paraiba ecoregion, and 81% of the animal cases in the Savannah ecoregion. Identifying and mapping the serogroups circulating using the One Health approach is the first step for further understanding the distribution of the disease in the state. This study has the potential to aid in guiding public health and agricultural practices, furthering the need for a human vaccine in high-risk populations to complement control and prevention efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: leptospirosis; serogroups; One Health; zoonoses; global health; infectious disease; Brazil leptospirosis; serogroups; One Health; zoonoses; global health; infectious disease; Brazil
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Polo, N.; Machado, G.; Rodrigues, R.; Nájera Hamrick, P.; Munoz-Zanzi, C.; Pereira, M.M.; Bercini, M.; Timm, L.N.; Schneider, M.C. A One Health Approach to Investigating Leptospira Serogroups and Their Spatial Distributions among Humans and Animals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2013–2015. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4, 42.

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