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A Case History in Cooperative Biological Research: Compendium of Studies and Program Analyses in Kazakhstan

1
MRIGlobal, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA
2
EpiPointe, LLC, Cary, NC 27518, USA
3
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan
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Department of Biological Safety, Kazakh National Agrarian University, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan
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Department of Biological Safety, Kazakh National Agrarian University, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan
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Department of Parasitic Diseases, Scientific Practical Center for Sanitary Epidemiological Expertise and Monitoring, Almaty 050008, Kazakhstan
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Department of Preventative Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
8
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4040136
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonoses and One Health)
Kazakhstan and the United States have partnered since 2003 to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The US Department of Defense (US DoD) has funded threat reduction programs to eliminate biological weapons, secure material in repositories that could be targeted for theft, and enhance surveillance systems to monitor infectious disease outbreaks that would affect national security. The cooperative biological research (CBR) program of the US DoD’s Biological Threat Reduction Program has provided financing, mentorship, infrastructure, and biologic research support to Kazakhstani scientists and research institutes since 2005. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective for the CBR involvement in Kazakhstan, including project chronology, successes and challenges to allow lessons learned to be applied to future CBR endeavors. A project compendium from open source data and interviews with partner country Kazakhstani participants, project collaborators, and stakeholders was developed utilizing studies from 2004 to the present. An earlier project map was used as a basis to determine project linkages and continuations during the evolution of the CBR program. It was determined that consistent and effective networking increases the chances to collaborate especially for competitive funding opportunities. Overall, the CBR program has increased scientific capabilities in Kazakhstan while reducing their risk of biological threats. However, there is still need for increased scientific transparency and an overall strategy to develop a capability-based model to better enhance and sustain future research. Finally, we offer a living perspective that can be applied to further link related studies especially those related to One Health and zoonoses and the assessment of similar capability-building programs.
Keywords: cooperative biological research (CBR) program; Kazakhstan; zoonoses; global health security; biosecurity; one health cooperative biological research (CBR) program; Kazakhstan; zoonoses; global health security; biosecurity; one health
MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh, K.B.; Parekh, F.K.; Musralina, L.; Sansyzbai, A.; Tabynov, K.; Shapieva, Z.; Richards, A.L.; Hay, J. A Case History in Cooperative Biological Research: Compendium of Studies and Program Analyses in Kazakhstan. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2019, 4, 136.

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