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Article

TrainAR: A Scalable Interaction Concept and Didactic Framework for Procedural Trainings Using Handheld Augmented Reality

1
Faculty of Technology, University of Applied Sciences Emden/Leer, Constantiaplatz 4, 26723 Emden, Germany
2
Institut für Angewandte Gesundheitsforschung—Midwifery & Reproductive Health, Hochschule für Gesundheit Bochum, Gesundheitscampus 6-8, 44801 Bochum, Germany
3
Zentrum für Medizinische Lehre, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gokce Akcayir, Nikolaos Pellas, Heinrich Söbke and Yun Wen
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5(7), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5070030
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 2 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 22 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theoretical and Pedagogical Perspectives on Augmented Reality)
The potential of Augmented Reality (AR) for educational and training purposes is well known. While large-scale deployments of head-mounted AR headsets remain challenging due to technical limitations and cost factors, advances in mobile devices and tracking solutions introduce handheld AR devices as a powerful, broadly available alternative, yet with some restrictions. One of the current limitations of AR training applications on handheld AR devices is that most offer rather static experiences, only providing descriptive knowledge with little interactivity. Holistic concepts for the coverage of procedural knowledge are largely missing. The contribution of this paper is twofold. We propose a scalabe interaction concept for handheld AR devices with an accompanied didactic framework for procedural training tasks called TrainAR. Then, we implement TrainAR for a training scenario in academics for the context of midwifery and explain the educational theories behind our framework and how to apply it for procedural training tasks. We evaluate and subsequently improve the concept based on three formative usability studies (n = 24), where explicitness, redundant feedback mechanisms and onboarding were identified as major success factors. Finally, we conclude by discussing derived implications for improvements and ongoing and future work. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile; handheld; augmented reality; mixed reality; procedural; education; learning; training; framework; interaction concept; midwifery mobile; handheld; augmented reality; mixed reality; procedural; education; learning; training; framework; interaction concept; midwifery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blattgerste, J.; Luksch, K.; Lewa, C.; Pfeiffer, T. TrainAR: A Scalable Interaction Concept and Didactic Framework for Procedural Trainings Using Handheld Augmented Reality. Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2021, 5, 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5070030

AMA Style

Blattgerste J, Luksch K, Lewa C, Pfeiffer T. TrainAR: A Scalable Interaction Concept and Didactic Framework for Procedural Trainings Using Handheld Augmented Reality. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. 2021; 5(7):30. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5070030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blattgerste, Jonas, Kristina Luksch, Carmen Lewa, and Thies Pfeiffer. 2021. "TrainAR: A Scalable Interaction Concept and Didactic Framework for Procedural Trainings Using Handheld Augmented Reality" Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 5, no. 7: 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti5070030

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