A Review of Augmented Reality Applications for History Education and Heritage Visualisation
2. Augmented Reality in Education
2.1. Augmented Reality in the Classroom
- Real World Annotation: Juxtaposing real world objects with virtual text or symbols to explain the content to the user
- Real Object Centred: The real-world object becomes the central point of learning with the augmented elements enhancing it for the purpose of learning
- Multimedia Learning theory : Utilizing multimedia content to assist in teaching the student. This can include videos, audio files or interactive elements that would not be possible or accessible without augmented reality.
- Fun—The student must enjoy using the system
- Challenge—The student must have some sort of objective to complete with the system
- Curiosity—The system must stimulate the student to further explore the topic
2.2. Augmented Reality for History Education
2.3. Augmented Reality for Holocaust Education
2.4. Augmented Reality in Museums
- Robust Tracking: Use camera-based tracking instead of sensor-based tracking as it’s less prone to errors and has had more development.
- Standardization: Define or adopt a standard for the creation of the system, including the mark-up language, documentation, data structures, metadata and model format. The authors claim a community standard for project creation would assist in development of future projects.
- User-Driven Semantics: Allow the user to focus on points of interest to avoid cluttering them with information in environments with multiple areas of interest.
- Tangible Augmented Reality: utilize tangible user interfaces, a type of user interface interfacing that allows the user to interact with and directly manipulate the information provided by a system by interacting with physical objects in the real world.
- Fully Immersive Virtual Reality: Whilst not applicable to this paper, the concept involves creating a fully immersive simulation for the user to enhance their experience. The authors did comment that this type of content is very expensive to manufacture.
- Multimodal Interfaces: Using two or more natural interaction modes. These rely on a combination of sensing devices to stimulate natural interaction from the users. This initially seems at odds with the suggestion for Tangible User Interfaces, but the two can co-exist providing there are multiple interaction methods.
2.5. The Impact of Augmented Reality on Learner Motivation
- Intrinsically motivated: The person is genuinely passionate about their task/subject and will endeavour to succeed regardless of difficulty or setbacks.
- Extrinsically motivated: The person is not fully dedicated to their task/subject but will fulfil it to gain a reward or avoid a punishment.
- A-motivational: The person has no interest in the task/subject and cannot be compelled to engage with it.
- The need for autonomy
- The need for competence
- The need for relatedness
3. Guidance for Heritage Visualization in Augmented Reality
- Interdisciplinarity: Having a team of experts from different areas of knowledge to collaborate and exchange both ideas and views.
- Purpose: Ensuring the project can improve aspects of research and/or conservation of architectural heritage.
- Complementarity: Any computer visualization should be used to enhance archaeological heritage and not to replace existing methods.
- Authenticity: Working to make the visualization as accurate as possible with the current understanding of the time-period.
- Historical Rigor: Showing as much of the time-period as possible, including the peak points of the topic along with their decline.
- Efficiency: The visualization should aim to use fewer resources to achieve more than traditional methods.
- Scientific Transparency: The visualization must be testable by other researchers.
- Training and evaluation: having appropriate means of evaluating the visualization.
- Substitution: Using technology to accomplish tasks that could have been performed without it.
- Augmentation: Occurs when the use of technology provides an improvement or is a more effective tool for completing the same task without technology.
- Modification: Did the technology change the way learning may have taken place previously?
- Redefinition: Occurs when learners participate in activities that would not have been possible without technology.
4.1. Does Usage of Augmented Reality Correlate to Higher Understanding of a Historical Topic?
4.2. How Effective Is Augmented Reality in Classroom Environments?
4.3. Are There Any Detriments to the Use of Augmented Reality and If So, How Might They Be Mitigated or Overcome?
4.4. Have There Been Any Studies Performed within a Museum Environment for Augmented Reality Technology and If So, Did the Results Differ to the Studies Performed within a Classroom?
5. Conclusions and Future Work
Conflicts of Interest
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|Study||Project Name||AR Design Features||Subject Area||Accuracy and Authenticity||Photorealism||Impact on Learning||Emotional Impact|
|Berti et al. ||N/A||N/A||History education||N/A||N/A||Historical perspective taking/empathizing with historical figures.||N/A|
|Huijgen et al. ||N/A||N/A||History education||N/A||N/A||Historical perspective taking/empathizing with historical figures.||N/A|
|Billinghurst & Duenser ||MagicBook||Augmented Books, Mobile Devices||Storytelling/physics education||High||N/A||Learning retention. Students were able to retain more of the lesson content when taught with AR than traditional means.||N/A|
|Wojciechowski & Cellary ||ARIES||Authoring tools|
|Chemistry education||High||Low||Usability/enjoyment testing. Students found using the system easy and enjoyed using it.||Students happier for having used the system.|
|Santos et al. ||N/A||Augmented Reality Learning Environments||Education (Various disciplines)||N/A||N/A||Committing educational content to long term memory.||N/A|
|Mayer ||N/A||N/A||Multimedia Learning Theory||N/A||N/A||Increased motivation from students when correctly applied.||N/A|
|Bujak et al. ||N/A||N/A||Mathematics education||N/A||N/A||Educational Autonomy.||N/A|
|Wu et al. ||N/A||N/A||General Education||N/A||N/A||Technical considerations and concerns of gameplay distractions or cognitive overload.||N/A|
|Dunleavy et al. ||Alient Contact!||Handheld devices, GPS markerless Augmented Reality||Mathematics, language arts and scientific literacy||N/A||Cannot be seen, no screenshots provided in study.||Motivation/student engagement. Dangers of cognitive overload.||Potential implications to cause stress to the user if they are overloaded.|
|Iten & Petko ||AWWWARE learning game||N/A||Computer education||N/A||N/A||Attitudes toward serious games and how enjoyment influenced motivation to learn.||N/A|
|Rosenbaum et al. ||Outbreak @ The Institute||Handheld devices, markerless augmented reality||Pathology/medical education||High||N/A, no visuals||Location-based studying and its influence on learning.||N/A|
|Kamphuis et al. ||Miracle||Projected CT Scan data, simulated training environments||Medical education||High||High||Immersive training environments, simulated realism.||N/A|
|Blanco-Fernández et al. ||REENACT||Handheld devices, marker-based augmented reality||History education||High||Medium||Historical perspective taking/empathizing with historical figures. Collaborating with experts to understand the consequences of historical decisions.||N/A|
|Chang et al. ||N/A||Handheld devices, digital tours||History education||High||N/A||Sense of place within a learning environment and the benefits of an augmented reality system within them||N/A|
|Harley et al. ||MetaGuide||Mobile devices, object recognition||History education||High||N/A||Location-based learning, historical differences and changes over time.||N/A|
|Choudary et al. ||N/A||Mobile Devices||History Education||High||N/A||N/A (No results on learning impact)||N/A|
|Herbst et al. ||TimeWarp||Mobile Devices||History Education||High||Medium||N/A (No results on learning impact)||N/A|
|Keil et al. ||House of Olbrich||Mobile Devices||History Education||High||Low||N/A (No results on learning impact)||N/A|
|Stapleton & Davies ||MemoryScape||N/A (Proposed project for markerless augmented reality)||Holocaust/history education||N/A||N/A (No screenshots provided, only sketches)||Location-based learning, historical empathy.||Emotionally challenging content and the difficulties approaching it tastefully.|
|Ma et al. ||Forever (a.k.a Interact)||Mixed reality, natural language processing||Holocaust/history education||High||High||Natural language interactions and historical empathy, a preservation of||Interacting with a virtual survivor and|
|Takahashi, Dean ||Tower of Faces||Mobile devices, object recognition||Holocaust/history education||High||N/A (Augmented information, no visuals)||History of Holocaust victims.||Emotionally challenging content, exposure to stories of Holocaust victims.|
|Pacheco et al. ||Bergen-Belsen Memorial AR||Mobile devices, GPS markerless augmented reality.||Holocaust/history education||High||Low||Historical empathy, sense of place, location-based learning.||N/A|
|Kyriakou & Herman ||CHESS||HMD’s, interactable content||History education||High||Medium||Enjoyment of interactions with an augmented reality enhanced museum exhibit.||N/A|
|Ramy & Ma ||MuseumEye||HMD’s||History education||High||Medium||User comfort when wearing a HoloLens HMD and their ability to interact with its control set.||N/A|
|He et al. ||N/A||HMD’s||Art and history education||N/A||N/A||Different types of enhanced exhibits and how verbal enhancement is more beneficial for educational purposes than visual enhancement.||N/A|
|Yoon & Wang ||N/A||Object recognition||Science education||High||N/A||Cognitive behavioural development and effect on motivation||N/A|
|Bekele et al. ||N/A||Mobile Devices, HMD’s, Interfaces, tracking types.||Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality||N/A||N/A||Creation of Augmented, Virtual or Mixed Reality projects for Cultural Heritage, along with different technologies and their uses.||N/A|
|Deci and Ryan ||N/A||N/A||General education||N/A||N/A||Different motivational categories and how they impact learning.||N/A|
|Vansteenkiste et al. ||N/A||N/A||General education||N/A||N/A||The impact of motivation on learning.||N/A|
|Roy & Zaman ||N/A||N/A||General education||N/A||N/A||Gamified learning and how to implement it within a classroom environment.||N/A|
|Di Serio et al. ||N/A||Mobile devices||Art and history education||High||N/A||Effect of augmented reality on student motivation.||N/A|
|Black, Ethan ||N/A||N/A||Holocaust/history education||N/A||N/A||Historical empathy||Emotional challenges of exposure to visceral content and ethical implications.|
|Gardner, Elliott ||Witness: Auschwitz||N/A||Holocaust/history education||Medium (Deliberately avoids certain content)||High||Immersive simulation of life within the Auschwitz Holocaust camp. Historical empathy.||Emotional challenges of exposure to visceral content and ethical implications.|
|Kerti ||Explore Lager Sylt||N/A||Holocaust/history education||High - potential inaccuracies communicated to the audience.||Low||Virtual representation of a destroyed Holocaust Site designed to give an accurate depiction based on historical evidence.||N/A – no emotional content.|
|Frydenberg & And one ||N/A||Mobile devices, authoring tools||Computer education/authoring augmented reality tools||N/A||N/A||Evaluating an educational augmented reality system upon for effectiveness.||N/A|
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Challenor, J.; Ma, M. A Review of Augmented Reality Applications for History Education and Heritage Visualisation. Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2019, 3, 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti3020039
Challenor J, Ma M. A Review of Augmented Reality Applications for History Education and Heritage Visualisation. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction. 2019; 3(2):39. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti3020039Chicago/Turabian Style
Challenor, Jennifer, and Minhua Ma. 2019. "A Review of Augmented Reality Applications for History Education and Heritage Visualisation" Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 3, no. 2: 39. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti3020039