A ‘Movement Screening Test’ of Functional Control Ability in Female Recreation Golfers and Non-Golfers over the Age of 80 Years: A Reliability Study
2. Materials and Methods
2.3. Movement Screening Tests
2.4. Scoring System
2.5. Statistical Analysis
3.1. Participant Characteristics
3.2. Kappa Values
Limitations and Future Recommendations
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Movement Screen Test Instructions and Scoring System
|Test Details||Scoring Criteria|
|Test 1a: Sit to stand with arm lift (Side View)|
Sitting with feet on the floor and spine straight, lean 30° forward at the hips. Then stand up keeping the knees out over the feet. Then, maintaining a neutral scapular position, lift the dominant arm to 90° shoulder flexion and lower back to the side.
|1: Can they keep the upper back straight and the collar bones up (the chest should not curl into flexion) during:|
the forward lean to a standing position?
the horizontal arm lift and lower?
2: Can they keep the shoulders level and steady (prevent the shoulder hitching into elevation) during the horizontal arm lift?
3: Can they keep the shoulders level and steady (preventing the shoulder dropping down from the neutral position) during the arm lowering action?
4: Can they keep the thumb pointing towards the ceiling to control/prevent the shoulder from turning into medial rotation as the arm is lifted to horizontal? (the palm should be facing inwards)
5: Can they keep the low back straight (not rounding into flexion) during the forward trunk lean?
6: Can they keep the low back straight (not arching into extension) during:
-the forward trunk lean?
-the movement from sitting to standing?
7: Can they fully straighten at the hips when they stand up? (There should be a vertical line from the trunk through the legs. The trunk should not be leaning forwards or the hips pushed backwards)
Total Score out of 7.
|Test 1b: Sit to stand with arm lift (Front View)||1: Can they keep the shoulders level and steady (control/prevent the shoulder blade hitching into elevation) during the horizontal arm lift?|
2: Can they keep the shoulders level and steady (control/prevent the shoulder blade from dropping down from the neutral position) into depression during the arm lowering action?
3: Can they keep the thumb pointing towards the ceiling to control/prevent the shoulder from turning into medial rotation as the arm lifts to horizontal? (the palm should be facing inwards)
4: Can they keep the knees apart (over the feet, preventing the knees from collapsing in towards each other) during the sit-to-stand movement?
Total Score out of 4.
|Test 2: Trunk lean with knee bend and opposite arm lift.|
With hand support on a bench/table perform 45° forward trunk lean (independent hip flexion) + knee flexion to lift non-dominant foot off the floor and opposite arm lift to horizontal shoulder flexion.
|1: Can they control/prevent the head from dropping forward or lifting from their natural position during:|
-the trunk forward lean?
-arm lifting and lowering?
2: Can they keep the shoulder and trunk steady on the weight-bearing arm?
3: Can they keep the non-weighting shoulder steady as the arm is lifted and reaches out?
4: Can they keep the thumb pointing towards the ceiling as the arm lifts to horizontal? (the palm should be facing inwards).
5: Can they keep the back straight and not let it round out into flexion during the forward lean?
6: Can they keep the back straight and not let it arch into extension?
7: Can they keep the pelvis from rotating (stay facing the front) during:
-the foot lift?
-the opposite arm lift?
Total Score out of 7.
|Test 3: Chest rotation with neutral head and pelvis. |
The range of upper body rotation should be 30° (using a line across the tips of the shoulders) towards the dominant side, without any head, pelvic, or leg movement
Participants will perform a small knee bend and then rotate their trunk to 30° towards their dominant side.
|1: Can they keep the head facing forward and control/prevent the head from turning or rotating throughout the 30° of upper trunk rotation?|
2: Can they keep their shoulders level and in a neutral mid position (prevent hitching into elevation) during trunk rotation?
3: Can they keep the pelvis facing the front and not allow it to rotate to follow the upper body (no rotation of the pelvis)?
4: Can they keep the knees apart and stationary during the chest turn? (no inward or outward movement of the knees across the line of the feet)
5: Can they keep the feet facing forward with the inside edges of the feet parallel and prevent the foot from turning in or out during the chest turn?
Total Score out of 5.
|Total of all test scores out of 23.|
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|Characteristics||Golf (N = 21)||Non-Golf (N = 10)||Mean Difference (95% CI)||Significance|
|N/A||p = 0.004 *|
|1.58 ± 0.04|
|1.57 ± 0.05|
|−0.01 (−0.05–0.02)||p = 0.38|
|62.3 ± 9.22|
|66.2 ± 12.7|
|3.87 (−4.34–12)||p = 0.34|
|24.7 ± 3.56|
|26.8 ± 4.42|
|2.05 (−0.97–5.0)||p = 0.34|
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Webb, N.; Rowsome, K.; Ewings, S.; Comerford, M.; Stokes, M.; Mottram, S. A ‘Movement Screening Test’ of Functional Control Ability in Female Recreation Golfers and Non-Golfers over the Age of 80 Years: A Reliability Study. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2018, 3, 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3040054
Webb N, Rowsome K, Ewings S, Comerford M, Stokes M, Mottram S. A ‘Movement Screening Test’ of Functional Control Ability in Female Recreation Golfers and Non-Golfers over the Age of 80 Years: A Reliability Study. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. 2018; 3(4):54. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3040054Chicago/Turabian Style
Webb, Nicholas, Keira Rowsome, Sean Ewings, Mark Comerford, Maria Stokes, and Sarah Mottram. 2018. "A ‘Movement Screening Test’ of Functional Control Ability in Female Recreation Golfers and Non-Golfers over the Age of 80 Years: A Reliability Study" Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology 3, no. 4: 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk3040054