# Development of a Method for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production with an Electrical Submersible Pump

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Calculation of Well Characteristics

_{ESP}is the ESP flow rate (it is equal to the fluid flow through the choke), in m

^{3}/day; C

_{D}is the choke flow coefficient, in units; A is the choke area, in m

^{2}; ΔP is the differential pressure, in MPa; ρ

_{fl}is the lifted fluid density, in kg/m

^{3}; d

_{ch}is the choke diameter, in m; d

_{t}is the tubing diameter, in m; and N

_{Re}is the Reynolds number, in units.

#### 2.2. Determination of the Effect of Demulsifier Feed on HVE Viscosity

#### 2.3. Calculation of the Power Consumption of an Electrical Submersible Pump Installation

#### 2.3.1. Electrical Submersible Pump

_{WH}is the wellhead pressure, in Pa; H

_{dyn}is the dynamic level, in m; g is the gravity acceleration, in m

^{2}/s; η

_{pump}is the pump efficiency at the operation point, in p.u.; and K

_{ην}is the coefficient considering the change in pump efficiency when operating on viscous liquids, in p. u.

_{i}is the polynomial weight coefficients, in units; f

_{np}is the nameplate voltage frequency, in Hz; f is the voltage frequency, in Hz; Q

_{max}is the theoretically possible maximum pump flow rate at a head equal to 0 m, in m

^{3}/day.

^{2}/s, and ν

_{w}is the kinematic water viscosity, in sm

^{2}/s.

#### 2.3.2. Submersible Electric Motor

_{SEM}is the SEM efficiency at the current load factor value, in p.u.

_{SEMnp}is the nameplate SEM efficiency, in p. u.

_{SEMnp}is the SEM nameplate power, in kW.

_{SEMnp}is the SEM nameplate voltage, in kV, and cos φ

_{SEM}is the SEM power factor at the current load factor value, in p. u.

_{SEMnp}is the SEM nameplate power factor, in p. u.

#### 2.3.3. Cable Line

_{0}and x

_{0}are the specific active and reactive resistance of cable line, in Ohm/km; l

_{CL}is the cable line length, in km; α is the temperature coefficient of electrical resistance, in units (taken to be equal to 0.004 for a copper cable); and T

_{E}is the environment’s temperature, in °C.

_{0}is the soil temperature at the depth of non-freezing, which by default is equal to 5 °C. H

_{b}and H

_{e}are the depth at the beginning and at the end of the cable; in this case, the beginning depth is 0, and the end depth is equal to the cable length, in km.

#### 2.3.4. Transformer

_{I}is the passport value of the transformer idle losses, in kW; ΔP

_{I}is the passport value of the transformer short-circuit losses, in kW; S is the transformer load corresponding to the calculated mode, in kVA; and S

_{Tnp}is the transformer nameplate power, in kVA.

#### 2.3.5. Control Station

_{CSnp}is the nameplate CS efficiency, in p. u.

^{3}:

#### 2.4. Optimal Frequency Value Calculation

_{1}is the pump flow, at a head equal to 0 at the main voltage frequency (the calculation should take into account the displacement of the pump head curve due to the influence of the viscosity of the produced fluid), in m

^{3}/day; Q

_{2}is the required pump rate, in m

^{3}/day; and f

_{1}is the main frequency of the supply voltage, in Hz.

_{cur}is the voltage frequency in the current mode, in Hz.

_{2}; H

_{2}). Then, the minimum allowable frequency is calculated, which will provide a given flow rate at the minimum allowable head:

_{1}is the head corresponding to the current mode, in m, and H

_{2}is the required head, in m.

_{WH}in the proposed mode is not lower than the line pressure (P

_{line}) of the initial mode.

#### 2.5. Influence of Fluid Viscosity on the Head Characteristic of a Pump

_{i}is the polynomial weight coefficients, in units.

^{3}/day:

_{ow}is the optimal ESP flow rate when using water, in m

^{3}/day.

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Initial Data

#### 3.2. Determination of the Effectiveness of the Use of Demulsifiers

#### 3.3. Modeling Modes

- Initial mode;
- Choke control (CC);
- Frequency control (FC);
- Combined control (choke control and frequency control) (ComC).

- Without using a demulsifier (wUD);
- Without using a demulsifier (UD).

_{ch}” callouts show the well head curves for different choke diameters; the callouts “f” show the pump head curves at different control station voltage frequencies; and the bold dots show the operating points for different control methods.

## 4. Discussion

- 1.
- The developed method for calculating power consumption allows us to estimate the amount of electricity consumption by an electrical submersible pump installation based on the mode, and not the nominal parameters of the electrical and mechanical equipment, while also taking into account the mutual influence of the equipment.
- 2.
- The developed method for power consumption calculation does not require large computing power, which allows us to assess the energy efficiency potential of electric submersible pump installations and can be implemented on the basis of programmable logic controllers of intellectual control stations.
- 3.
- The developed method for calculating power consumption allows us to evaluate the energy efficiency of the technological mode, and we can choose and justify the change of the well to a repeated short-term or long-term operation mode.
- 4.
- The technique for calculating the control station voltage frequency is carried out not with respect to the pump nominal parameters, but with respect to the pump head curve extreme points, which makes it possible to consider the individuality of the characteristics of various pumps.
- 5.
- The developed technique for improving energy efficiency, in addition to reducing the costs of production, can also have an effect in planning the inventory of equipment necessary to ensure the specified parameters of the technological mode.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Equipment | Parameter | Well | |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | ||

Pump | Q_{np}, m^{3}/day | 80 | 80 |

Q_{max}, m^{3}/day | 151.4 | 151.4 | |

SEM | P_{SEMnp}, kW | 32 | 40 |

U_{SEMnp}, V | 1000 | 1300 | |

cos φ_{SEMnp}, p.u. | 0.85 | 0.85 | |

η_{SEMnp},% | 84 | 91.5 | |

I_{np},A | 24.2 | 24 | |

CL | r_{0}, Ohm/km | 2.1 | 2.1 |

x_{0}, Ohm/km | 0.1 | 0.1 | |

L, km | 1.39 | 1.33 | |

T | ΔP_{I}, kW | 0.55 | 0.55 |

ΔP_{SC}, kW | 2.6 | 2.6 | |

S_{Tnp}, kVA | 100 | 100 | |

CS | η_{CSnp}, p.u. | 0.97 | 0.97 |

Parameter | Value | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

i | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 0 |

η_{pump} | 0.000104 | 0.90676 | 0.14863 | 0.14755 | −1.2593 |

PHC | 3.02E-06 | −0.00124 | 0.07774 | −1.14269 | 1132.1 |

Mode | Parameter | Well | |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | ||

Constant parameters | B, p.u. | 1.06 | 1.06 |

ρ_{fl}, kg/m^{3} | 923 | 923 | |

H_{dyn}, m | 915 | 827 | |

d_{t,} mm | 62 | 62 | |

Initial mode | Q_{ESP}, m^{3}/day | 71.3 | 74.4 |

P_{line}, MPa | 1.35 | 0.95 | |

P_{WH}, MPa | 1.5 | 1.1 | |

f, Hz | 47 | 50 | |

d_{ch}, mm | 8 | 8 | |

Demulsifier | Without using demulsifier, Pa∙s | 0.0711 | 0.0711 |

Using demulsifier, Pa∙s | 0.0569 | 0.0569 | |

Choke control | Q_{ESP}, m^{3}/day | 67 | 70 |

P_{WH}, MPa | 1.76 | 1.25 | |

f, Hz | 47 | 50 | |

d_{ch}, mm | 6 | 6 | |

Frequency control | Q_{ESP}, m^{3}/day | 67 | 70 |

P_{WH}, MPa | 1.46 | 1.08 | |

f, Hz | 46.4 | 49.5 | |

d_{ch}, mm | 8 | 8 | |

Combined control | Q_{ESP}, m^{3}/day | 67 | 70 |

P_{WH}, MPa | 1.36 | 0.96 | |

f, Hz | 46.2 | 49.3 | |

d_{ch}, mm | 15 | 15 |

Parameter | Well | |
---|---|---|

1 | 2 | |

W_{sp} (calculation), kW∙h/m^{3} | 11.03 | 8.16 |

W_{sp} (measurement), kW∙h/m^{3} | 10.77 | 8.33 |

Error, % | −2.39 | 2.03 |

Parameter | CC wUD | CC UD | FC wUD | FC UD | ComC wUD | ComC UD |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

P_{WH}, MPa | 1.76/1.25 | 1.76/1.25 | 1.46/1.08 | 1.46/1.08 | 1.36/0.96 | 1.36/0.96 |

K_{ην}, p.u. | 0.767/0.767 | 0.805/0.805 | 0.767/0.767 | 0.805/0.805 | 0.767/0.767 | 0.805/0.805 |

η_{pump}, p.u. | 0.337/0.418 | 0.353/0.438 | 0.341/0.422 | 0.357/0.443 | 0.342/0.424 | 0.359/0.445 |

P_{pump}, kW | 23.15/16.95 | 22.06/16.15 | 22.18/16.46 | 21.17/15.69 | 21.84/16.16 | 20.81/15.4 |

η_{ESM}, p.u. | 0.847/0.793 | 0.847/0.782 | 0.847/0.787 | 0.846/0.775 | 0.846/0.782 | 0.845/0.77 |

I_{ESM}, A | 20/14.3 | 19.1/14 | 19.5/14.2 | 18.6/14 | 19.3/14.2 | 18.4/14 |

ΔP_{SEM}, kW | 4.18/4.41 | 4/4.5 | 4.02/4.46 | 3.86/4.56 | 3.96/4.5 | 3.81/4.6 |

ΔP_{CL}, kW | 3.82/1.84 | 3.47/1.77 | 3.6/1.84 | 3.28/1.77 | 3.53/1.82 | 3.21/1.76 |

ΔP_{T}, kW | 0.86/0.75 | 0.83/0.73 | 0.82/0.73 | 0.79/0.72 | 0.81/0.72 | 0.78/0.71 |

ΔP_{CS}, kW | 0.96/0.72 | 0.91/0.69 | 0.92/0.7 | 0.87/0.68 | 0.9/0.7 | 0.86/0.67 |

P_{ESPI}, kW | 32.97/24.67 | 31.27/23.85 | 31.54/24.2 | 29.99/23.42 | 31.05/23.91 | 29.47/23.15 |

Use of a Demulsifier | W_{sp}, kW∙h/m^{3} | ||
---|---|---|---|

CC | FC | ComC | |

Well 1 | |||

wUD | 11.81 | 11.30 | 11.12 |

UD | 11.20 | 10.74 | 10.56 |

Well 2 | |||

wUD | 8.46 | 8.30 | 8.20 |

UD | 8.18 | 8.03 | 7.94 |

CC wUD | CC UD | FC wUD | FC UD | ComC wUD | ComC UD | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

CC wUD | 0/0 | 5.17/3.34 | 4.34/1.92 | 9.05/5.09 | 5.83/3.11 | 10.61/6.17 |

CC UD | - | 0/0 | −0.87/−1.47 | 4.1/1.81 | 0.7/−0.24 | 5.74/2.93 |

FC wUD | - | - | 0/0 | 4.93/3.23 | 1.56/1.21 | 6.56/4.34 |

FC UD | - | - | - | 0/0 | −3.54/−2.08 | 1.72/1.14 |

ComC wUD | - | - | - | - | 0/0 | 5.08/3.16 |

ComC UD | - | - | - | - | - | 0/0 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Petrochenkov, A.; Ilyushin, P.; Mishurinskikh, S.; Kozlov, A.
Development of a Method for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production with an Electrical Submersible Pump. *Inventions* **2023**, *8*, 29.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010029

**AMA Style**

Petrochenkov A, Ilyushin P, Mishurinskikh S, Kozlov A.
Development of a Method for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production with an Electrical Submersible Pump. *Inventions*. 2023; 8(1):29.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010029

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Petrochenkov, Anton, Pavel Ilyushin, Sergey Mishurinskikh, and Anton Kozlov.
2023. "Development of a Method for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production with an Electrical Submersible Pump" *Inventions* 8, no. 1: 29.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010029