# An Original Aerodynamic Ducting System to Improve Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Industry

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

^{®}. Likewise, a vehicle considered a model (Figure 3a) was designed in the same software, and the deflector system was incorporated in parallel to this model (Figure 3b).

^{®}was used to perform different aerodynamic simulations, subjecting the vehicle without the deflector to the same aerodynamic conditions previously defined, and then the vehicle with the deflector designed in Phase I, to analyze the difference in the behavior of the airflow for both the conventional vehicle and vehicle with the deflector system incorporated.

_{2}O), the second speed equivalent to 41 km/h (equivalent to 8 mm H

_{2}O), and the third speed equivalent to 50 km/h (equivalent to 12 mm H

_{2}O).

## 3. Results and Discussion

^{®}software are shown. In Figure 8a, the mock-up of the conventional vehicle is shown, where the wake left by the vehicle as it moves forward is dark blue. However, in Figure 8b, the mock-up has the deflector system incorporated in the upper part and it can be seen that the deflector manages to provide a different wake to the rear of the vehicle, represented by the additional light blue area.

_{α}) and with deflector (P

_{β}) at each of the nine points measured, indicating the respective pressure difference (P

_{β}− P

_{α}) at each measurement point. In turn, this last block was subdivided into three columns because each of them indicated the distance from the origin of the Z-axis (Figure 7a).

^{®}software, as shown in Figure 8, it can be seen that the upper deflector captured and channeled the airflow that hit the front of the vehicle, and in taking advantage of its force and transferring it to the rear area, a new airflow appears in the wake left by the vehicle, with positive pressures that manage to fill a previously empty area that consisted of only negative pressures. This concept corresponds to that obtained in the studies [24,25], which implemented a similar channeling system, also taking advantage of the incident air at the front of the vehicle; nevertheless, the arrangement of the ducts is different since they are located inside the bottom of the vehicle. However, this study [27] did also have a duct at the top based on a slot in the roof, which verifies the effect.

_{β}− P

_{α}, Appendix A) at the 135 measured points, and considering the subtraction of the deflector pressure values from those measured without, it was revealed that all values were positive or at least 0, which indicates that 60% of the initial positive values without the deflector had a lower magnitude than the values with deflector. Therefore, at all of these measuring points, the deflector also provides a great advantage, since it favors vehicle thrust. This fact also then implies that at all of the measured points, the deflector redirects an airflow that allows the pressure in the entire analyzed wake to increase, effectively managing to propel the car.

_{β}− P

_{α}, Appendix A), besides being all positive at each point compared, in many cases reached values of high magnitude, even significantly exceeding the magnitude of the absolute value of the pressures obtained without the deflector. Likewise, the pressures found from the pressure difference (calculated as P

_{β}− P

_{α}) represent the pressure with which the vehicle can be propelled forward at that point, which is equivalent to having an airflow of, for example, 7 mm H

_{2}O or its equivalent vehicle speed of 38 km/h, propelling the vehicle from the rear in its direction of travel. The maximum pressure difference (P

_{β}− P

_{α}) value obtained was 15 mm H

_{2}O (at a speed of 50 km/h, in the plane located 1 cm from the X-axis (X1), at a height of 95 mm from the Y-axis (Y95) at 60 mm from the Z-axis (Z60)), which translates to driving the vehicle with an airflow of 55 km/h.

_{R}), (ii) aerodynamic drag (F

_{A}), (iii) slope resistance (F

_{S}) (in this case a flat surface will be considered so F

_{S}= 0), and (iv) thrust force (F

_{P}).

_{R}= k · m · g

_{x}represents the aerodynamic drag coefficient, assumed to be C

_{x}= 0.32, considering the value given by manufacturers for a similar body model and that for most cars, 0.30 < C

_{x}< 0.35; S is the front surface of the vehicle affected (S

_{α}= 0. 01426 m

^{2}in the case without deflector, and S

_{β}= 0.01612 m

^{2}for the case with deflector); r is the air density (r = 1.225 kg/m

^{3}, according to ISA (International Standard Atmosphere) at sea level and 15 °C); and v is the vehicle speed (v = 50 km/h = 13.89 m/s).

_{P}, but considering the thrust surface as half of the rear surface of the vehicle (S = 0.00806 m

^{2}), then the value of the velocity (v) at the rear area of the vehicle is obtained from the equation:

_{2}emissions into the atmosphere, which would reduce the overall carbon footprint. Wind energy is also an indigenous energy source, which contributes to reducing energy imports and any use of wind energy contributes to sustainable development.

## 4. Conclusions

_{2}O equivalent to a suction airflow rate of 28.8 km/h, so that, at the same points, the previous resistance was transformed into a forward impulse, the impulse being equivalent to an airflow rate of 15 mm H

_{2}O, i.e., an equivalent air speed of 55 km/h, pushing the car from the rear toward the front, favoring its circulation. Finally, the results found at the technical and performance levels make it favorable to further study this invention to evaluate the potential for its commercial development. To this effect, the authors are intending to initiate a fundraising phase to start the commercial development of this invention after a more thorough study of the real potential of the device.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A. Comparison of experimental test pressures

Points of the Plane | X (cm) | V (km/h) | Y(mm) | P_{α}(mm H_{2}O) | P_{β}(mm H_{2}O) | P_{β}− P_{α}(mm H_{2}O) | ||||||

Z100 | Z60 | Z20 | Z100 | Z60 | Z20 | Z100 | Z60 | Z20 | ||||

A/B/C | 1 | 35 | 95 | −2 | −2 | −2 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 6 | 6 | 6 |

D/E/F | 65 | −2 | −3 | −2 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 3 | 2 | ||

G/H/I | 35 | −2 | −2 | −2 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 2 | 2 | ||

A/B/C | 5 | 95 | −1 | −2 | −1 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 5 | |

D/E/F | 65 | −2 | −3 | −2 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 3 | 2 | ||

G/H/I | 35 | −1 | −2 | −1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 2 | 1 | ||

A-B-C | 10 | 95 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 3 | 3 | 3 | |

D-E-F | 65 | 2 | 3 | 2 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 3 | 2 | 3 | ||

G-H-I | 35 | 2 | 1 | 2 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 2 | 3 | 2 | ||

A-B-C | 20 | 95 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 0 | 1 | 0 | |

D-E-F | 65 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 6 | 4 | 0 | 2 | 0 | ||

G-H-I | 35 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 1 | 2 | 1 | ||

A-B-C | 27 | 95 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 5 | 1 | 2 | 1 | |

D-E-F | 65 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 5 | 1 | 2 | 1 | ||

G-H-I | 35 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 5 | 1 | 2 | 1 | ||

A/B/C | 1 | 41 | 95 | −1 | −1 | −1 | 7 | 7 | 7 | 8 | 8 | 8 |

D/E/F | 65 | −1 | −2 | −1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 2 | 1 | ||

G/H/I | 35 | −1 | −1 | −1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | ||

A/B/C | 5 | 95 | −1 | −2 | −1 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 6 | |

D/E/F | 65 | −2 | −3 | −2 | 2 | 3 | 2 | 4 | 5 | 4 | ||

G/H/I | 35 | −1 | −2 | −1 | 1 | 2 | 1 | 2 | 4 | 2 | ||

A-B-C | 10 | 95 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 6 | 7 | 6 | 2 | 2 | 2 | |

D-E-F | 65 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 6 | 5 | 2 | 3 | 2 | ||

G-H-I | 35 | 4 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 4 | 0 | 2 | 0 | ||

A-B-C | 20 | 95 | 6 | 7 | 6 | 6 | 7 | 6 | 0 | 0 | 0 | |

D-E-F | 65 | 5 | 6 | 5 | 5 | 7 | 5 | 0 | 1 | 0 | ||

G-H-I | 35 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 5 | 7 | 5 | 1 | 3 | 1 | ||

A-B-C | 27 | 95 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 8 | 6 | 0 | 2 | 0 | |

D-E-F | 65 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 7 | 6 | 0 | 1 | 0 | ||

G-H-I | 35 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 7 | 6 | 0 | 1 | 0 | ||

A/B/C | 1 | 50 | 95 | −3 | −4 | −3 | 11 | 11 | 11 | 14 | 15 | 14 |

D/E/F | 65 | −4 | −4 | −4 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 | 4 | 4 | ||

G/H/I | 35 | −4 | −4 | −4 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 5 | 5 | 5 | ||

A/B/C | 5 | 95 | −3 | −4 | −3 | 10 | 10 | 10 | 13 | 14 | 13 | |

D/E/F | 65 | −3 | −5 | −3 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 9 | 11 | 9 | ||

G/H/I | 35 | −2 | −2 | −2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | 4 | 4 | 4 | ||

A-B-C | 10 | 95 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 11 | 11 | 11 | 8 | 7 | 8 | |

D-E-F | 65 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 8 | 11 | 8 | 5 | 7 | 5 | ||

G-H-I | 35 | 3 | 3 | 3 | 6 | 8 | 6 | 3 | 5 | 3 | ||

A-B-C | 20 | 95 | 7 | 9 | 7 | 11 | 12 | 11 | 4 | 3 | 4 | |

D-E-F | 65 | 6 | 8 | 6 | 9 | 12 | 9 | 3 | 4 | 3 | ||

G-H-I | 35 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 7 | 10 | 7 | 1 | 4 | 1 | ||

A-B-C | 27 | 95 | 8 | 10 | 8 | 10 | 12 | 10 | 2 | 2 | 2 | |

D-E-F | 65 | 8 | 10 | 8 | 9 | 12 | 10 | 1 | 2 | 2 | ||

G-H-I | 35 | 8 | 8 | 8 | 8 | 11 | 8 | 0 | 3 | 0 |

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**Figure 3.**Autocad 3D

^{®}design: (

**a**) vehicle without deflector; (

**b**) vehicle with incorporated deflector.

**Figure 10.**Comparison of pressures with and without deflector with respect to the X-axis at different velocities (V): (

**a**) 35 km/h; (

**b**) 41 km/h; and (

**c**) 50 km/h.

**Figure 11.**Comparison of pressures with and without deflector with respect to the Y-axis at different velocities (V): (

**a**) 35 km/h; (

**b**) 41 km/h; and (

**c**) 50 km/h.

**Figure 12.**Comparison of pressures with and without deflector with respect to the Z-axis at different velocities (V): (

**a**) 35 km/h; (

**b**) 41 km/h; and (

**c**) 50 km/h.

Z100 | Z60 | Z20 | |
---|---|---|---|

Y95 | A | B | C |

Y65 | D | E | F |

Y35 | G | H | I |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Fernández-Gutiérrez, J.; Fernández-Arias, P.; Vergara, D.; Antón-Sancho, Á.
An Original Aerodynamic Ducting System to Improve Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Industry. *Inventions* **2023**, *8*, 13.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010013

**AMA Style**

Fernández-Gutiérrez J, Fernández-Arias P, Vergara D, Antón-Sancho Á.
An Original Aerodynamic Ducting System to Improve Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Industry. *Inventions*. 2023; 8(1):13.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010013

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Fernández-Gutiérrez, Jana, Pablo Fernández-Arias, Diego Vergara, and Álvaro Antón-Sancho.
2023. "An Original Aerodynamic Ducting System to Improve Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Industry" *Inventions* 8, no. 1: 13.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010013