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Sexes, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 11 articles

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15 pages, 480 KiB  
Article
University Students’ Sexual Identity Development as a Determinant of Sexual Self-Hood
by B. J. Rye and Steven Hertz
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 477-491; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030035 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Sexual identity development was explored as a predictor of sexual self-concept and erotophobia–erotophilia using a student sample. Sexual identity development was operationalized using Worthington et al.’s Measure of Sexual Identity Development, which is theoretically based on Marcia’s identity model. Based on Worthington et [...] Read more.
Sexual identity development was explored as a predictor of sexual self-concept and erotophobia–erotophilia using a student sample. Sexual identity development was operationalized using Worthington et al.’s Measure of Sexual Identity Development, which is theoretically based on Marcia’s identity model. Based on Worthington et al.’s scale, there are four sexual identity development domains: commitment to one’s sexual identity, exploration of one’s sexual identity, sexual orientation uncertainty, and synthesis/integration of one’s sexual identity. Several of Snell’s Sexual Self-Concept scales (e.g., sexual depression, sexual self-efficacy) and Tromovitch’s Comfort with Sexuality scales (e.g., comfort talking about sexuality, comfort with the sexual activities of others) were used to define sexual self-concept and erotophobia–erotophilia, respectively. A sample of students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at a Canadian university completed these instruments. Results suggest that sexual identity development was strongly predictive of sexual self-concept scales, multivariately. Sexual identity development was also predictive of comfort with sexuality. Sexual self-concept and erotophobia–erotophilia were also related to each other. These relationships supported the idea that a positive sexual identity development process contributes to a favorable view of the sexual self. However, the study was cross-sectional and correlational, so conclusions about directionality are preliminary and causality cannot be inferred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers Collection of the Editorial Board of Sexes)
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14 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Women Selling Sex in Russia: Analyzing Women’s Appraisal of Exploitation and Mistreatment Using Cognitive Dissonance and Cultural Sex Script Frameworks
by Varvara Gulina, Lianne A. Urada, Veronika Odinokova and Maia Rusakova
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 463-476; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030034 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 108681
Abstract
Globally, over a third of women have experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. In Russia, human trafficking, sexual exploitation, and physical abuse of women are amongst the world’s highest. Applying cognitive dissonance theory and sexual script theory, this study explores whether [...] Read more.
Globally, over a third of women have experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. In Russia, human trafficking, sexual exploitation, and physical abuse of women are amongst the world’s highest. Applying cognitive dissonance theory and sexual script theory, this study explores whether women (n = 654) trading sex in Russia appraise their experiences of entering the commercial sex trade as voluntary or forced. Contributing client factors were also analyzed, including beatings (66%), rape (66%), and humiliation (86%) by clients. Multiple logistic regression assessed whether women who reported voluntarily entering the commercial sex trade were more likely to experience physical abuse but less likely to experience rape (AOR:1.37); were more likely to perceive men using them as decent/caring (AOR = 2.54); were more likely to sell sadistic/masochistic services (AOR: 2.31); and less likely to stop selling sex (AOR: 5.84). Implications of this study reveal the importance of intervention strategies that account for a woman’s unawareness of her own exploitation and mistreatment as well as the psychological barriers that prevent her from seeking help. The necessity of recognizing women selling sex as sufferers of coercion and abuse is also emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Relationships, Sexual Behaviors and Gender-Based Violence)
18 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Sexualization and Dehumanization of Women by Social Media Users in Namibia
by Bruno Venditto, Beatha Set and Rachel Ndinelao Amaambo
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 445-462; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030033 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6905
Abstract
The advancements in current sources of information and technology have resulted in our ‘real lives’ becoming inundated with and entangled with new media and ‘virtual’ environments. Social media promotes freedom of expression, and remains a largely unregulated interactive space, despite the various monitoring [...] Read more.
The advancements in current sources of information and technology have resulted in our ‘real lives’ becoming inundated with and entangled with new media and ‘virtual’ environments. Social media promotes freedom of expression, and remains a largely unregulated interactive space, despite the various monitoring mechanisms introduced by social platform hosts and owners to control hate speech and other forms of abuse. It is becoming increasingly evident that the protection of anonymity on social media platforms promotes the proliferation of new forms of misogyny and offensive language directed towards women and individuals belonging to marginalised groups. This proliferation of online misogynistic hate speech ultimately exhibits oppressing mechanisms that aim to disempower, dehumanise and perpetuate gender-based violence against women. This paper discusses the results of exploring the use of dehumanising and abusive language expressed online, that targets prominent Namibian women in politics and business. The feminist theory, especially sexualization and objectification framework was employed to conceptually analyse depictions of dehumanisation of women in Namibia. Narratives from social media, such as Facebook and Twitter of public figures of Namibian women, were presented to justify cases of insulting and derogatory language. They expose the implications of sexualisation and dehumanisation of women’s human rights and freedom to participate actively in both public and social media spaces, and its potential to perpetuate gender-based violence in Namibia. The paper argues that contemporary social media has failed to create a conducive environment for critical and meaningful participation, which is free from sexualization, genderisation and dehumanisation, providing recommendations for the Namibian environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers Collection of the Editorial Board of Sexes)
11 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
Ownership, Enjoyment, Arousal Troubles, and Robust Education: Pleasure in LGBTQ+ Alt-Sex Members’ Responses to Consent Violations
by Jessamyn Bowling, Susan Wright, Casey Mesaeh, J. Kevin Benson and Russell Stambaugh
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 434-444; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030032 - 30 Aug 2022
Viewed by 3155
Abstract
Background: Alt-sex practitioners are a diverse group with diverse unconventional sexual behaviors including consensual non-monogamy (CNM), kink, fetishism, and bondage/discipline dominance/submission, sadomasochism (BDSM). Perhaps because of their openness to non-normative sexuality, these communities often comprise a large proportion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, [...] Read more.
Background: Alt-sex practitioners are a diverse group with diverse unconventional sexual behaviors including consensual non-monogamy (CNM), kink, fetishism, and bondage/discipline dominance/submission, sadomasochism (BDSM). Perhaps because of their openness to non-normative sexuality, these communities often comprise a large proportion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, among others (LGBTQ+) individuals. LGBTQ+ individuals experience higher rates of sexual violence and consent violation than their cisgender, heterosexual peers both inside and outside of formalized alt-sex communities. Pleasure, including but not limited to sexual pleasure, is often a motivator for engaging in sexual and alt-sex activities. This study examines how consent violations influence pleasure among LGBTQ+ alt-sex members. Methods: We conducted an electronic one-time survey of LGBTQ+ alt-sex practitioners (N = 1354). In this study, we analyze open-ended responses for ways pleasure was described in response to questions about consent violations. We use thematic analyses in Dedoose online software. Results: Two subthemes emerged related to the violation itself, (a) pleasure as a motivator for violating consent and (b) pleasure in spite of consent violation. As the second theme that emerged, pleasure was a component of the aftereffects of the violation in two ways: (1) pleasure was reduced or inhibited by consent violations; (2) pleasure was a motivator for healing and advocacy. Conclusions: We discuss practical and research implications based on the complex relationships between violations and pleasure reported by participants. Full article
21 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Perceptions and Experiences of Pakistani-Descent Female Adolescents Living in Canada, on Developing Sexuality and Self-Identity
by Neelam Saleem Punjani, Kathleen Hegadoren, Saima Hirani, Zubia Mumtaz, Margot Jackson and Elizabeth Papathanassoglou
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 413-433; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030031 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6531
Abstract
Immigrant adolescents make up a substantial proportion of newcomers to Canada. Most newcomer youth from South Asia aged 15 to 24 are from racialized “visible minority” backgrounds. The sexual health needs of female immigrant adolescents in Canada have been largely unmet and have [...] Read more.
Immigrant adolescents make up a substantial proportion of newcomers to Canada. Most newcomer youth from South Asia aged 15 to 24 are from racialized “visible minority” backgrounds. The sexual health needs of female immigrant adolescents in Canada have been largely unmet and have increased in magnitude over the last few years. For immigrant female adolescents, the silence around issues of sexuality needs can affect their physical, emotional, sexual health, and overall well-being as well as their ability to reach their full potential. Evidence suggests that immigrant adolescents lack sexual and reproductive health knowledge and use fewer sexual health-related services and sex education resources than non-immigrant youth. In Pakistani immigrant adolescents, this difference appears to be associated with socio-cultural and religious practices. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the experience of developing sexuality and its relationship to well-being in middle- to late-female adolescents of Pakistani-descent, living in a large urban area in Canada. The study aimed to establish space for dialogue and to bridge the perceived cultural divide on issues of sexuality using the postmodern feminist lens, which often arises between individuals from different cultural backgrounds. Using the interpretive descriptive methodology, a purposive sample of 21 female adolescents who were of first- or second-generation Pakistan-descent was obtained. Participants included female adolescents aged from 14 to 19 years. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide and a timeline. A total of 21 first interviews and seven follow up interviews were conducted. The narratives and timelines presented in this study tell the story of female Pakistani adolescents, their narratives, and the timelines reflect the complexities of the sexuality of female adolescents and how they perceive and attribute meanings to their experiences. The study found that living in a bicultural world can cause significant stress and anxiety among female adolescents, especially when making personal life decisions related to sexuality. Moreover, silence around all aspects of female sexuality negatively affects the capacity for desire and pleasure. In addition, the intersection of gender and patriarchy have created layers of power and oppression in adolescent lives that tightly control their sexuality. The participants’ stories reveal the complex interaction of factors that influence the behavior of female adolescents related to sexuality and sexual health. These findings establish the need for cultural awareness while viewing each girl’s experience in relation to the intersectionality of social spheres such as race, ethnicity, culture, and religion. Finally, this study provides implications to policymakers to revise the existing policies and create youth-friendly policies for immigrant youth to draw attention to the hidden voices of female adolescents and increase the awareness of ways to address issues arising in evolving sexuality. Full article
17 pages, 1655 KiB  
Article
The Consequences of Gender Inequality on Latin America’s Economic Growth: Macroeconomic Evidence
by Matheus Koengkan, José Alberto Fuinhas, Matheus Belucio, Emad Kazemzadeh, Yormy Eliana Melo Poveda, Nooshin Karimi Alavijeh and Renato Santiago
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 396-412; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030030 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3546
Abstract
This research analysed the effect of gender inequality on the economic growth of seventeen countries in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region from 1990 to 2016 using an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model with fixed effects and a quantiles via moments [...] Read more.
This research analysed the effect of gender inequality on the economic growth of seventeen countries in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region from 1990 to 2016 using an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model with fixed effects and a quantiles via moments model. Electricity consumption from new renewable energy sources, general government capital stock, private capital stock, trade openness, and urban population were used as control variables, and a battery of preliminary and post-estimation tests were conducted to guarantee the adequacy and suitability of both methodologies. The OLS model with fixed effects supports that gender inequality negatively affects gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The quantiles via moments (QvM) model confirms the results of the OLS model with fixed effects and reveals that with increasing quantiles (25th, 50th, and 75th), gender inequality leads to decreases in LAC countries’ growth. LAC countries’ policymakers and institutions should improve gender equality to reach a higher development level and a more prosperous society. Developing policies that contribute to increasing women’s participation in the labour market, reducing the gender pay gap, supporting women’s education and training, constructing a more women-friendly and less patriarchal society, and developing measures to limit violence against women and early pregnancy and maternal mortality rates and increase women’s decision-making positions, particularly in public policy decision making, must be implemented. Full article
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11 pages, 245 KiB  
Review
Cultural Safety for LGBTQIA+ People: A Narrative Review and Implications for Health Care in Malaysia
by Kyle K. H. Tan and Sai Ang Ling
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 385-395; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030029 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3968
Abstract
LGBTQIA+ people in Malaysia constitute a marginalised population as they are subjected to cisheterosexism that permeates every layer of society. Cisheterosexist ideologies in Malaysia find their eligibility on secular and religious laws that criminalise LGBTQIA+ identities, which have detrimental consequences on LGBTQIA+ people’s [...] Read more.
LGBTQIA+ people in Malaysia constitute a marginalised population as they are subjected to cisheterosexism that permeates every layer of society. Cisheterosexist ideologies in Malaysia find their eligibility on secular and religious laws that criminalise LGBTQIA+ identities, which have detrimental consequences on LGBTQIA+ people’s mental health and their ability to access equitable health care. Existing literature has revealed limitations for healthcare providers to employ a blinded approach (i.e., treat everyone the same) and practise culturally competency when seeing LGBTQIA+ patients. In this narrative review, we compiled international evidence of culturally safe care for LGBTQIA+ people and outlined its relevance to interrogating power relationships within healthcare practices and structures. Our reviewed findings brought together five components of culturally safe care for LGBTQIA+ people: power-enhancing care; inclusive healthcare institutions; continuous education and research; promotion of visibility; and individualised care. These components set crucial milestones for healthcare providers to reflect on ways to equalise power dynamics in a provider–patient relationship. The applicability and implication of culturally safe healthcare in Malaysia are succinctly discussed. Full article
18 pages, 345 KiB  
Article
Trauma Chronicity and the Long-Term Needs of Childhood Sexual Trauma Survivors
by Ashley C. Schuyler and Joseph A. Catania
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 367-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030028 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3038
Abstract
Research has linked childhood sexual trauma (CST) with adverse adult outcomes (AAOs) that span physical, psychological, and social domains of functioning. Differences in conceptualizing and measuring CST, however, have inhibited the examination of trauma-related variables hypothesized to impact adult outcomes. We used National [...] Read more.
Research has linked childhood sexual trauma (CST) with adverse adult outcomes (AAOs) that span physical, psychological, and social domains of functioning. Differences in conceptualizing and measuring CST, however, have inhibited the examination of trauma-related variables hypothesized to impact adult outcomes. We used National Sexual Health Survey (NSHS; 1995–1996) data to examine trauma chronicity (i.e., duration) and AAOs (domains: physical and mental health, close relationships, and achievement). The NSHS (N = 6537, 18–70 years) assessed duration using perpetrator-specific CST reports. Adjusting for background characteristics, we examined CST duration in relation to AAOs and CST-related help-seeking. Approximately 8% of participants reported CST. Chronic (vs. single-exposure) CST survivors were at substantially higher risk of experiencing AAOs [i.e., mean AAOs and specific AAOs (e.g., physical and emotional health problems, divorce/separation, and poverty)]. CST had direct effects on sexual dysfunction and satisfaction, and on relationship stressors which may impact sexual relationship quality. Although 62% of CST survivors did not seek help, those with more chronic CST histories reported a higher prevalence of trauma-related help-seeking. Our work underscores the importance of examining CST chronicity in relation to long-term developmental outcomes. Chronicity assessment may be an important screening tool in the therapeutic context and in broader community screening efforts. Full article
16 pages, 926 KiB  
Article
Health Behaviors and Behavior Change during Pregnancy: Theory-Based Investigation of Predictors and Interrelations
by Nathalie Herzog-Petropaki, Christina Derksen and Sonia Lippke
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 351-366; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030027 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6057
Abstract
(1) Background: Preventing pregnancy complications and maternal deaths and helping women stay healthy before, during, and after pregnancy by means of sexual health and behavior is imperative. Previous research demonstrated that a lack of social support and perceived discrimination have adverse effects on [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Preventing pregnancy complications and maternal deaths and helping women stay healthy before, during, and after pregnancy by means of sexual health and behavior is imperative. Previous research demonstrated that a lack of social support and perceived discrimination have adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. These determinants may impact health behavior as an important mediator of pregnancy outcomes. To better understand this relation, the Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM) was applied. The research question was: how do predictors of health behavior, specifically intention, planning, self-efficacy, social support, and discrimination, interrelate with different health behaviors during pregnancy? (2) Methods: By means of qualitative interviews with ten pregnant women (20–39 years, mean = 28.6) from different cultural backgrounds, the predictors of health behaviors and experiences with pregnancy, including racial discrimination, were investigated. (3) Results: Not all women changed their unhealthy behaviors even though their higher-level goal was to ensure their baby’s and their own health. This appeared partially due to lack of social support, racial discrimination, and unexpected pregnancy side effects. The women who previously performed health behaviors revealed a healthier pattern with maintaining or even expanding their health behaviors, while those performing no health behavior in the past reported more obstacles with a healthy lifestyle. (4) Conclusions: Pregnant women appear to be having difficulties translating good intentions into behavior. The reasons include lack of support, fear, and insecurity, which impact self-efficacy and planning. Improvements in health behaviors were facilitated by specific circumstances, such as working from home. Policy and practice should take these aspects into account and help mobilize support and overcome discrimination by means of more rights and support for pregnant women while also empowering the individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health and Gynecology)
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15 pages, 818 KiB  
Article
Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance of the Sexually Aggressive Behaviors Scale across Male and Female Portuguese College Students
by Bárbara Moreira, Pedro J. Rosa, Nélio Brazão and Joana Carvalho
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 336-350; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030026 - 7 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2498
Abstract
There is growing interest on the topic of Sexual Violence (SV) perpetrated by community samples; movements, as the Me Too, have triggered such focus. Researching the validity of core SV measures is now fundamental. Accordingly, this study aimed to assess the structure of [...] Read more.
There is growing interest on the topic of Sexual Violence (SV) perpetrated by community samples; movements, as the Me Too, have triggered such focus. Researching the validity of core SV measures is now fundamental. Accordingly, this study aimed to assess the structure of the Portuguese version of the Sexually Aggressive Behaviors Scale (SABS-PT) while testing for measurement invariance across gender. The SABS-PT was tested among a sample of 2540 Portuguese college students (48.5% males and 51.5% females). All participants identified as heterosexual, and their ages ranged between 18 and 39 years old. To assess the construct validity and test for measurement invariance across gender, single and multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses were performed. Results support the internal consistency and convergent/discriminant validity of the SABS-PT in relation to external variables. Overall, the findings suggest a good fit of data to the model. The partial scalar invariance of the measurement was obtained and further analyses on latent means differences indicated that men scored higher on SV compared to women. The SABS-PT may constitute a useful instrument for screening sexual initiation by aggressive means and associated risk factors and may play an important role as an outcome measure in programs preventing sexual violence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Relationships, Sexual Behaviors and Gender-Based Violence)
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11 pages, 230 KiB  
Brief Report
The Health and Healthcare Outcomes of Trans and/or Non-Binary Adults in England: Protocol for an Analysis of Responses to the 2021 GP Patient Survey
by Catherine L. Saunders, Jenny Lund, Amy M. Mason, Meg Roberts, Jack Smith and Robbie Duschinsky
Sexes 2022, 3(3), 325-335; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3030025 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
Background: The large-scale quantitative evidence base to understand and improve health and healthcare outcomes for people who are trans and/or non-binary is still developing, although what research there is suggests that risk of poor health is high, and experiences of healthcare services are [...] Read more.
Background: The large-scale quantitative evidence base to understand and improve health and healthcare outcomes for people who are trans and/or non-binary is still developing, although what research there is suggests that risk of poor health is high, and experiences of healthcare services are often poor. In 2021 the GP Patient Survey, which is carried out annually to measure patient experience in primary care in England, added inclusive questions about gender identity and trans status for the first time. Methods: This protocol paper pre-registers the methods that we will use for this work for a secondary analysis of these data, including both the statistical analysis protocol and early patient and public involvement work, to answer the following three research questions: (1) What are the (a) demographic characteristics, (b) health conditions, and (c) healthcare experiences of trans and/or non-binary adults in England? (2) Was there any difference in whether people who are trans and/or non-binary had been asked to shield during the COVID-19 pandemic or not compared with all other survey responders? (3) Does the relationship between being trans and/or non-binary, and self-reported long-term mental health problems, autism and autistic spectrum disorder and learning disability vary by age, gender, ethnicity, deprivation, sexual orientation or region? Full article
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