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Condens. Matter 2019, 4(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat4010029

Impact of Surface Roughness on Ion-Surface Interactions Studied with Energetic Carbon Ions 13C+ on Tungsten Surfaces

1
Independent researchers, Heinersdorfer Str. 52, 13086 Berlin, Germany
2
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie—und Klimaforschung—Plasmaphysik, 52428 Jülich, Germany
3
Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
4
Institut für Physikalische Chemie, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 23 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract

The effect of surface roughness on angular distributions of reflected and physically sputtered particles is investigated by ultra-high vacuum (UHV) ion-surface interaction experiments. For this purpose, a smooth (Ra = 5.9 nm) and a rough (Ra = 20.5 nm) tungsten (W) surface were bombarded with carbon ions 13C+ under incidence angles of 30° and 80°. Reflected and sputtered particles were collected on foils to measure the resulting angular distribution as a function of surface morphology. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) were performed. Simulations of ion-surface interactions were carried out with the SDTrimSP (Static Dynamic Transport of Ions in Matter Sputtering) code. For rough surfaces, a special routine was derived and implemented. Experimental as well as calculated results prove a significant impact of surface roughness on the angular distribution of reflected and sputtered particles. It is demonstrated that the effective sticking of C on W is a function of the angle of incidence and surface morphology. It is found that the predominant ion-surface interaction process changes with fluence. View Full-Text
Keywords: roughness; ion-surface interaction; angular distribution; reflection; physical sputtering; deposition; sticking; plasma-wall interaction; secondary ion mass spectrometry; nuclear reaction analysis; SDTrimSP roughness; ion-surface interaction; angular distribution; reflection; physical sputtering; deposition; sticking; plasma-wall interaction; secondary ion mass spectrometry; nuclear reaction analysis; SDTrimSP
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hellwig, M.; Köppen, M.; Hiller, A.; Koslowski, H.R.; Litnovsky, A.; Schmid, K.; Schwab, C.; De Souza, R.A. Impact of Surface Roughness on Ion-Surface Interactions Studied with Energetic Carbon Ions 13C+ on Tungsten Surfaces. Condens. Matter 2019, 4, 29.

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