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Chestnut Shell Extract Modulates Immune Parameters in the Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

1
Department of Sciences and Technologies, University of Sannio, Via Port’Arsa, 11, 82100 Benevento, Italy
2
Institute of Food Sciences—National Research Council (ISA-CNR), Via Roma 64, 83100 Avellino, Italy
3
Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Aquaculture, Cukurova University, Adana 01330, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fishes 2019, 4(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010018
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract

In this study, chestnut (Castanea sativa) shell was extracted with different solvents, and immunomodulatory activity was investigated in an in vitro model system using blood and intestinal leukocytes of Oncorhynchus mykiss. Gallic acid (GA) was used as a standard. Chestnut shell extract (CSE) and GA readily entered both blood and intestinal leukocytes. Superoxide anion production and phagocytosis were decreased by low doses of CSE and increased with high doses. CSE and GA differently regulated cytokine expression in blood and intestinal leukocytes. High doses of CSE upregulated IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10 in intestinal leukocytes and IL-10 in blood leukocytes. Low doses of CSE upregulated IL-1β and TNF-α in blood leukocytes. GA appeared to be effective only in blood leukocytes. The effects of CSE on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines seemed to suggest an alert effect of the immune defense system against a possible infectious agent. The less evident effect of GA in comparison to CSE could have been attributable to the synergistic and/or additive effects of polyphenols in the latter. The immune-stimulating activity of CSE reported here could be useful for future practical applications in fish health. View Full-Text
Keywords: Oncorhynchus mykiss; chestnut shell extract; intestinal leukocytes; blood leukocytes; immunomodulatory activity Oncorhynchus mykiss; chestnut shell extract; intestinal leukocytes; blood leukocytes; immunomodulatory activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Coccia, E.; Siano, F.; Volpe, M.G.; Varricchio, E.; Eroldogan, O.T.; Paolucci, M. Chestnut Shell Extract Modulates Immune Parameters in the Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fishes 2019, 4, 18.

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