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Fishes 2018, 3(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030033

Administration of Probiotics in the Water in Finfish Aquaculture Systems: A Review

1
Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2
Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Fish Innate Immune System Group, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract

Over the last few decades, the contribution of aquaculture to animal protein production has increased enormously, and the sector now provides almost half of the fish and shellfish consumed worldwide, making it a major food producer. Nevertheless, many factors, including infections, pollution, and stress, may result in significant economic losses. The aquaculture industry will not be totally successful without the therapeutic and preventive means to control all these factors. Antibiotics (long used in aquaculture practice) have tended to aggravate the problem by increasing antibiotic resistance. Concomitantly, probiotics have widely been suggested as eco-friendly alternatives to antibiotics. However, the way in which probiotics are applied in aquaculture is a key factor in their favorable performance. The aim of this review was to examine the current state of probiotics administration through the water in finfish aquaculture. The review also attempts to cover the research gaps existing in our knowledge of this administration mode, and to suggest the issues that need to be investigated in greater depth. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; administration method; finfish; favorable performance; aquaculture probiotics; administration method; finfish; favorable performance; aquaculture
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jahangiri, L.; Esteban, M.Á. Administration of Probiotics in the Water in Finfish Aquaculture Systems: A Review. Fishes 2018, 3, 33.

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