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Fishes 2017, 2(3), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2030013

Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825), a Clupeid Fish That Exhibits Elevated Batch Fecundity in Hypersaline Waters

1
Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research, Fahrenheitstraße 6, 28359 Bremen, Germany
2
Thünen-Institute (TI), Institute of Sea Fisheries, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Palmalle 9, 22767 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Adelino V. M. Canario
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract

Little is known about the concerted influence of temperature and salinity on the fecundity of clupeid fishes. Due to a globally changing climate, both physical parameters might act as stressors, severely affecting the reproductive potential of clupeid fish populations inhabiting tropical estuaries. Differences in relative batch fecundities, the gonado-somatic index, and the condition index of bonga shad (Ethmalosa fimbriata) were analysed in individual females sampled at the Senegalese coast and inside the inverse Sine Saloum estuary, where salinity increases upstream in all seasons. Multiple linear regression models on fecundity and gonadal energy storage show that clupeids can adapt towards increasing their reproductive investment at temperatures (26–30 °C) and salinities (42–51), which by far exceed marine conditions, in an effort to maximize recruitment success. This reproductive strategy, however, is accompanied by a trade-off between reproductive effort and somatic growth, which ultimately limits the species’ reproductive potential inside the estuary. The observed high variability in batch fecundities might be a viable mechanism to adjust to fluctuating and rather extreme environmental conditions. Understanding the spawning biology of exploited clupeid fishes in drastically changing environments is crucial for evaluating the reproductive potential of stocks at the outer reach of their physiological performance curve. View Full-Text
Keywords: global change; Senegal; inverse estuary; reproductive potential; temperature; salinity; spawning; fecundity; condition; trade-off global change; Senegal; inverse estuary; reproductive potential; temperature; salinity; spawning; fecundity; condition; trade-off
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Döring, J.; Tiedemann, M.; Stäbler, M.; Sloterdijk, H.; Ekau, W. Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich 1825), a Clupeid Fish That Exhibits Elevated Batch Fecundity in Hypersaline Waters. Fishes 2017, 2, 13.

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