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Interaction Histories and Short-Term Memory: Enactive Development of Turn-Taking Behaviours in a Childlike Humanoid Robot

Centre for Computer Science & Informatics Research, University of Hertfordshire Adaptive Systems Research Group, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
Department of Computer Science, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Faculty of Computer and Informatics, Technical University of Istanbul, Istanbul 34469, Turkey
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 26;
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
PDF [6853 KB, uploaded 23 May 2019]


In this article, an enactive architecture is described that allows a humanoid robot to learn to compose simple actions into turn-taking behaviours while playing interaction games with a human partner. The robot’s action choices are reinforced by social feedback from the human in the form of visual attention and measures of behavioural synchronisation. We demonstrate that the system can acquire and switch between behaviours learned through interaction based on social feedback from the human partner. The role of reinforcement based on a short-term memory of the interaction was experimentally investigated. Results indicate that feedback based only on the immediate experience was insufficient to learn longer, more complex turn-taking behaviours. Therefore, some history of the interaction must be considered in the acquisition of turn-taking, which can be efficiently handled through the use of short-term memory. View Full-Text
Keywords: human–robot interaction; turn-taking; developmental robotics human–robot interaction; turn-taking; developmental robotics

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Broz, F.; Nehaniv, C.L.; Kose, H.; Dautenhahn, K. Interaction Histories and Short-Term Memory: Enactive Development of Turn-Taking Behaviours in a Childlike Humanoid Robot. Philosophies 2019, 4, 26.

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