A Review of Vehicle-to-Vulnerable Road User Collisions on Limited-Access Highways to Support the Development of Automated Vehicle Safety Assessments
2.1. Study Approach
2.2. Definition of Vulnerable Road Users (VRU)
2.3. Definition of Limited Access Highways
3.1. Occupants Alighting from a Disabled Vehicle
3.2. People Walking across or along a Highway
3.3. People Seeking Help or Helping Others
3.4. People in Working Zones
3.5. Occupants Moving Outside Stopped Vehicles
- Example-1: Steering away from Pedestrian
- Example-2: Braking for Pedestrian
Conflicts of Interest
|Authors and Year||Region||Targeted Population||Main Goals/Outcomes|
| WHO, 2017||Worldwide||Pedestrians||The report provides information for use in developing and implementing comprehensive measures to improve pedestrian safety. The outcomes contribute to implementing effective interventions that improve pedestrian safety, utilizing a comprehensive approach that focuses on engineering, enforcement, and education measures.|
| The European Union (2010/40/EU)|
consolidated version: 9 January 2018
|Europe||Overall||The aim is to develop a framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport. It also aims to enable various users to be better informed and make safer and more coordinated use of transport networks.|
The outcomes contribute to provide specifications and standards that ensure a coordinated and effective deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems within the European Union.
| Boda (2017)||Europe||Pedestrians and cyclists||The study aims to develop new knowledge about driver behavior with VRU and integrate it into assessment programs, such as Euro-NCAP, to improve their scenario-based evaluation of the systems. They included the developed knowledge in a counterfactual analysis framework for safety-benefit evaluation. It is established that, during driver-VRU interaction, the moment a VRU becomes visible to the driver had the most significant influence on the driver’s braking behavior.|
| Sun et al. (2003)||USA||Pedestrians||The study aims to develop realistic models for driver-pedestrian interaction at an uncontrolled two-lane mid-block crosswalk. Different methodologies for modeling pedestrian gap acceptance and the motorist yield are proposed and examined in a field study.|
| WHO (2018)||Worldwide||Overall||The number of road traffic deaths continues to climb, and the SDG goal to halve road traffic deaths by 2020 has not been achieved. Reviewing the critical risk factors does show; however, that progress is being made in improving key road safety laws, making infrastructure safer, adopting vehicle standards, and improving access to post-crash care.|
| Maki et al. (2003)||Japan||Bicyclists and pedestrians||Vehicle to bicyclist and pedestrian collisions were investigated based on national and in-depth accident data analyses and mathematical simulations in Japan. Component test procedures have been proposed for evaluating bicyclist and pedestrian safety based on the impact area and angle.|
| OECD, Fertility rates (indicator) 2015||OECD countries||Overall||The report provides statistical analyses of the total fertility rates|
| National Center for Statistics and Analysis, NHTSA (2018)||USA||Pedestrians||Traffic Safety Facts obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)|
| Bella and Silvestri (2021)||Italy||Pedestrians||The aim is to contribute to the development of pedestrian warning systems.|
| Litman (2003)||USA||Pedestrians||The aim is to promote the benefits of walk and walkability.|
| Wegman et al. (2012)||The Netherlands||Bicyclists||The study discusses the road safety problems of cycling and cyclists.|
| Jacobsen (2015)||USA||Bicyclists and pedestrians||The study aims to examine the relationship between the numbers of people walking or bicycling and the frequency of vehicles to pedestrians and bicyclists collisions.|
| Haworth (2019)||17 developed countries||Bicyclists||A survey Study.|
| Wisch et al. (2017)||Europe||Bicyclists||The study introduced the Use Cases derived from the car-to-cyclists crash data analysis.|
| Schepers (2017)||The Netherlands||Bicyclists||The study explores factors contributing to the 80% reduction in the number of cyclists killed (predominantly bicycle–motor vehicle crashes) per billion bicycle kilometers in the Netherlands over thirty years.|
| Balanovic (2016)||New Zealand||Bicyclists||A multi-phase investigation to improve cycling safety by changing motorist overtaking behavior.|
| Ekström and Linder (2017)||Sweden||Bicyclists||The study aims to identify patterns among fatally injured cyclists in Sweden to suggest general improvements in cycling safety and specific traffic conditions.|
| Amin et al. (2019)||Sweden||Overall||This report describes and analyzes road safety trends in Sweden.|
| Retting (2017)||USA||Pedestrians||The study reports pedestrian fatalities by state and roadway type.|
| Laird et al. (2013)||Ireland||Bicyclists and pedestrians||The study presents evidence on the value of pedestrian and cyclist infrastructure in rural roadways.|
| Hayashi et al. (2013)||Japan||Pedestrians||The study evaluates the effectiveness of a pre-crash safety system with pedestrian collision avoidance to reduce vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes.|
| Lindman et al. (2010)||Europe||Pedestrians||The study presents a sophisticated method for estimating the potential effectiveness of a technology designed to support the car driver in mitigating or avoiding crashes with pedestrians.|
| Euro NCAP (2021)||Europe||VRU||The report provides Test Protocols (car-to-pedestrian, car-to-bicyclist, and car-to-motorcyclist) for AEB VRU Systems.|
| Schram (2015)||Europe||VRU||The aim is to develop test procedures for assessing AEB Pedestrian systems.|
| Sander (2018)||USA and Germany||Overall||Real-accidents and driving data from the USA were used to compare the capacity of onboard sensing and V2X communication to save lives. Real-accidents data from Germany were utilized to simulate accidents with and without Intersection AEB using different parameter settings of technical aspects and driver comfort boundaries. Machine learning techniques were used to identify opportunities for data clustering. Intersection AEB was found to be effective in reducing accidents and mitigating injuries up to a specific limit.|
| ITARDA (2014)||Japan||Pedestrians||Statistics of pedestrian crashes on limited-access highways (expressways)|
| Tabone (2021)||Non-applicable||VRU||This study reports the opinion of sixteen Human Factors researchers about their perspectives on AVs and the interaction with VRUs in the future urban environment. The interviewees believed that fully autonomous vehicles will not be introduced in the coming decades and that intermediate levels of automation, specific AV services, or shared control will be used instead. They foresaw a significant role of intelligent infrastructures and expressed a need for AV-VRU segregation.|
| Dollar et al. (2011)||USA||Pedestrians||The study evaluated the performance of sixteen state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors across six data sets. Results show that system performance still has much room for improvement despite significant progress, particularly the detection at low resolutions and partially occluded pedestrians.|
| Combs et al. (2019)||USA||Pedestrians||The study investigates automated vehicles’ potential for reducing pedestrian fatalities. The study analyzed 5000 pedestrian fatalities recorded in 2015 (FARS) and virtually reconstructed them under a hypothetical scenario that replaces involved vehicles with automated versions equipped with state-of-the-art (as of December 2017) sensor technology.|
| de Miguel et al. (2019)||Spain||Pedestrians||The study evaluated pedestrians’ interaction with level-5 automated driving vehicles on public roads.|
| Gelbal et al. (2020)||USA||Pedestrians||This study evaluated pedestrian collision avoidance systems for low-speed autonomous shuttles based on Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P) communication.|
| European Commission (2017)||Europe||Overall||Real-accidents data report|
| Hu and Cicchino (2018)||USA||Pedestrians||The study investigates how pedestrian fatalities trends vary by roadway, environmental, personal, and vehicle factors.|
| Wang and Cicchino (2020)||USA||Pedestrians||The study investigates the characteristics of pedestrian crashes on interstates and other freeways in the United States.|
| Hunter (2020)||USA||Pedestrians||This case study aimed to determine the causes of pedestrian crashes on interstate highways and potential countermeasures to reduce the crash rate for these accidents.|
| Harruff (1998)||USA||Pedestrians||The study performed a retrospective analysis of 217 pedestrian fatalities in Seattle over six years using medical examiner records with essentially all deaths examined by autopsy.|
| Johnson (1997)||USA||Pedestrians||The study identified crash types and factors contributing to fatal pedestrian crashes on Interstate highways and surveyed countermeasures that address the problem.|
| Cieslik et al. (2019)||Europe||VRU||The project (PROSPECT) aims to improve the effectiveness of VRU avoidance systems compared to those currently on the market by expanding the scope of urban scenarios addressed and improving the autonomous emergency braking and steering systems.|
| Rosén and Sander (2009)||Sweden||Pedestrians||The study developed an improved risk function for adult pedestrians hit by the front of passenger cars based on the most extensive in-depth pedestrian accident study undertaken to date.|
| IIHS-HLDI (2021)||USA||Pedestrians||Fatality facts report|
| Japan Automobile Federation (2020)||Japan||Motorized Vehicles||An annual report of vehicles required service on roadways.|
| Officer Magazine (2020)||USA||VRU||News: A police officer was hit in a highway crash.|
| Andersson and Chapman (2011)||UK||Overall||This study investigated the impact of weather factors on road maintenance and traffic accidents rate.|
| Li and Bai (2009)||USA||Overall||The study reports the impact of the work zone risk factors on the probability of fatalities when severe crashes occur based on a screening process that incorporates both statistical analyses and empirical research findings.|
| Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1994)||USA||Pedestrians||The report uses FARS data to characterize intoxicated pedestrians older than 14 years killed in motor-vehicle-related crashes.|
| kiiitv.com (2020)||USA||VRU||News: A police officer was hit in a highway crash.|
| nbcboston.com (2020)||USA||VRU||News: A police officer was hit in a highway crash (Tesla autopilot).|
| nbcconnecticut.com (2019)||USA||VRU||News: A police officer was hit in a highway crash.|
| Police Magazine (2020)||Australian||VRU||News: A police officer was hit in a highway crash.|
| ISO WD34501 (2021)||Not applicable||Overall||Automated Vehicle Standardization|
| taiwannews.com (2020)||Taiwan||VRU||News: Video shows Tesla on autopilot slam into a truck on Taiwan highway.|
| Lübbe (2015)||Sweden||Pedestrians||This study developed an integrated pedestrian safety assessment method using data from passive safety and active systems evaluations and demonstrated its use in assessing combinations of passive and active safety systems of autonomous emergency braking and forward-collision warning.The study outcomes show that the autonomous emergency braking system has a safety benefit broadly equivalent to increasing the Euro NCAP passive safety rating.|
| Wisch et al. (2013)||Europe||VRU||A project aims to improve VRUs safety by developing test and assessment procedures for forward-looking integrated pedestrian safety systems that incorporate passive safety and autonomous emergency braking systems.|
| Yanagisawa et al. (2017)||USA||Pedestrians||The study estimates the effectiveness and potential safety benefits of pedestrian crash avoidance and mitigation systems in light vehicles.|
| Chen et al. (2015)||China||Pedestrians||The study conducted in-depth accident analysis to describe accident scenarios for pedestrian accidents in China and to support the development of test procedures for assessing autonomous emergency braking systems.|
| Kovaceva et al. (2019)||Europe||Cyclists||The study quantified drivers’ comfort zone boundaries and investigated influencing factors while drivers overtake cyclists in a naturalistic setting.|
| Rasch et al. (2020)||France and Sweden||Pedestrians||The study aimed to address pedestrian-overtaking maneuvers on rural roads by analyzing how drivers adjust their behavior using safety metrics extracted from field and driving simulator studies.|
The study analyzed and modeled the driver’s comfort zone when overtaking a pedestrian.
| Brännström et al. (2014)||Sweden||Overall||The study reports an evaluation of autonomous emergency braking and steering systems.|
| Euro-NCAP (2019)||Europe||Overall||The report explains the safety assessments of the autonomous emergency braking system.|
| European Road Safety Observatory (2016)||Europe||Pedestrians||A traffic safety fact report.|
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Muslim, H.; Antona-Makoshi, J. A Review of Vehicle-to-Vulnerable Road User Collisions on Limited-Access Highways to Support the Development of Automated Vehicle Safety Assessments. Safety 2022, 8, 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020026
Muslim H, Antona-Makoshi J. A Review of Vehicle-to-Vulnerable Road User Collisions on Limited-Access Highways to Support the Development of Automated Vehicle Safety Assessments. Safety. 2022; 8(2):26. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020026Chicago/Turabian Style
Muslim, Husam, and Jacobo Antona-Makoshi. 2022. "A Review of Vehicle-to-Vulnerable Road User Collisions on Limited-Access Highways to Support the Development of Automated Vehicle Safety Assessments" Safety 8, no. 2: 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8020026