Next Article in Journal
Simulation of Tunnel Fire for Evacuation Safety Assessment
Previous Article in Journal
Speed Responses to Speed Humps as Affected by Time of Day and Light Conditions on a Residential Road with Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Road Lighting
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Safety 2018, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety4010011

On the Adequacy of API 521 Relief-Valve Sizing Method for Gas-Filled Pressure Vessels Exposed to Fire

1
Process and Technical Safety, Ramboll Energy, Bavnehøjvej 5, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
2
Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs Vej 8A, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
  |  
PDF [4372 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]
  |  

Abstract

In this paper, the adequacy of the legacy API 521 guidance on pressure relief valve (PRV) sizing for gas-filled vessels subjected to external fire is investigated. Multiple studies show that in many cases, the installation of a PRV offers little or no protection—therefore provides an unfounded sense of security. Often the vessel wall will be weakened by high temperatures, before the PRV relieving pressure is reached. In this article, a multiparameter study has been performed taking into consideration various vessel sizes, design pressures (implicitly vessel wall thickness), vessel operating pressure, fire type (pool fire or jet fire) by applying the methodology presented in the Scandpower guideline. A transient thermomechanical response analysis has been carried out to accurately determine vessel rupture times. It is demonstrated that only vessels with relatively thick walls, as a result of high design pressures, benefit from the presence of a PRV, while for most cases no appreciable increase in the vessel survival time beyond the onset of relief is observed. For most of the cases studied, vessel rupture will occur before the relieving pressure of the PRV is reached. View Full-Text
Keywords: jet fire; pressure relief valve (PRV); vessel rupture; fire heat load; pool fire jet fire; pressure relief valve (PRV); vessel rupture; fire heat load; pool fire
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Andreasen, A.; Borroni, F.; Zan Nieto, M.; Stegelmann, C.; P. Nielsen, R. On the Adequacy of API 521 Relief-Valve Sizing Method for Gas-Filled Pressure Vessels Exposed to Fire. Safety 2018, 4, 11.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Safety EISSN 2313-576X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top