Next Article in Journal
Recent Trends in Compressive Raman Spectroscopy Using DMD-Based Binary Detection
Next Article in Special Issue
Resolution Limits in Photoacoustic Imaging Caused by Acoustic Attenuation
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Photoacoustic Ophthalmoscopy: Principle, Application, and Future Directions
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Imaging 2018, 4(12), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging4120150

In Vivo 3D Imaging of Retinal Neovascularization Using Multimodal Photoacoustic Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

1
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
3
Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Photoacoustic Imaging: Technologies and Methods)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5410 KB, uploaded 12 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

The pathological process of neovascularization of the retina plays a critical role in causing vision loss in several diseases, including diabetes, retinal vein occlusion, and sickle cell disease. Retinal neovascularization can lead to vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment, yet the pathological process of neovascularization is a complex phenomenon under active investigation. Understanding and monitoring retinal neovascularization is critically important in clinical ophthalmology. This study describes a novel multimodal ocular imaging system which combines photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to improve the visualization of retinal neovascularization (RNV), their depth, and the surrounding anatomy in living rabbits. RNV was induced in New Zealand rabbits by intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The retinal vasculature before and after injection at various times was monitored and evaluated using multimodal imaging including color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), OCT, and PAM. In vivo experiments demonstrate that PAM imaging distinctly characterized the location as well as the morphology of individual RNV with high contrast at a safe laser energy of 80 nJ. SD-OCT was used to identify a cross-sectional structure of RNV. In addition, dynamic changes in the retinal morphology and retinal neovascularization were observed at day 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14, 28, and day 35 after VEGF injection. PAM demonstrated high-resolution optical absorption of hemoglobin and vascular imaging of the retina and choroid with increased depth of penetration. With the current multimodal imaging system, RNV can be easily visualized in both 2D and 3D angiography. This multimodal ocular imaging system provides improved characterization of the microvasculature in a safe manner in larger rabbit eyes. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoacoustic microscopy; optical coherence tomography; multimodal imaging; retinal neovascularization; vascular endothelial growth factor; PAM; OCT; VEGF photoacoustic microscopy; optical coherence tomography; multimodal imaging; retinal neovascularization; vascular endothelial growth factor; PAM; OCT; VEGF
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, V.P.; Li, Y.; Aaberg, M.; Zhang, W.; Wang, X.; Paulus, Y.M. In Vivo 3D Imaging of Retinal Neovascularization Using Multimodal Photoacoustic Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging. J. Imaging 2018, 4, 150.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Imaging EISSN 2313-433X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top