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J. Imaging 2018, 4(12), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging4120149

Photoacoustic Ophthalmoscopy: Principle, Application, and Future Directions

1
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Photoacoustic Imaging: Technologies and Methods)
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Abstract

Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) is a novel, hybrid, non-ionizing, and non-invasive imaging technology that has been used to assess the retina. PAOM can provide both anatomic and functional retinal characterizations with high resolution, high sensitivity, high contrast, and a high depth of penetration. Thus, ocular diseases can be precisely detected and visualized at earlier stages, resulting in an improved understanding of pathophysiology, improved management, and the improved monitoring of retinal treatment to prevent vision loss. To better visualize ocular components such as retinal vessels, choroidal vessels, choroidal neovascularization, retinal neovascularization, and the retinal pigment epithelium, an advanced multimodal ocular imaging platform has been developed by a combination of PAOM with other optical imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and fluorescence microscopy. The multimodal images can be acquired from a single imaging system and co-registered on the same image plane, enabling an improved evaluation of disease. In this review, the potential application of photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy in both research and clinical diagnosis are discussed as a medical screening technique for the visualization of various ocular diseases. The basic principle and requirements of photoacoustic ocular imaging are introduced. Then, various photoacoustic microscopy imaging systems of the retina in animals are presented. Finally, the future development of PAOM and multimodal imaging is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy; photoacoustic microscopy; photoacoustic imaging; optical coherence tomography; multimodal imaging modality photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy; photoacoustic microscopy; photoacoustic imaging; optical coherence tomography; multimodal imaging modality
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Nguyen, V.P.; Paulus, Y.M. Photoacoustic Ophthalmoscopy: Principle, Application, and Future Directions. J. Imaging 2018, 4, 149.

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