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J. Imaging 2018, 4(10), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging4100121

Signed Real-Time Delay Multiply and Sum Beamforming for Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging

1
Division of Computer Assisted Medical Interventions (CAMI), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
3
Medical Faculty, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Photoacoustic Imaging: Technologies and Methods)
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Abstract

Reconstruction of photoacoustic (PA) images acquired with clinical ultrasound transducers is usually performed using the Delay and Sum (DAS) beamforming algorithm. Recently, a variant of DAS, referred to as Delay Multiply and Sum (DMAS) beamforming has been shown to provide increased contrast, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and resolution in PA imaging. The main reasons for the use of DAS beamforming in photoacoustics are its simple implementation, real-time capability, and the linearity of the beamformed image to the PA signal. This is crucial for the identification of different chromophores in multispectral PA applications. In contrast, current DMAS implementations are not responsive to the full spectrum of sound frequencies from a photoacoustic source and have not been shown to provide a reconstruction linear to the PA signal. Furthermore, due to its increased computational complexity, DMAS has not been shown yet to work in real-time. Here, we present an open-source real-time variant of the DMAS algorithm, signed DMAS (sDMAS), that ensures linearity in the original PA signal response while providing the increased image quality of DMAS. We show the applicability of sDMAS for multispectral PA applications, in vitro and in vivo. The sDMAS and reference DAS algorithms were integrated in the open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) and are available as real-time capable implementations. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoacoustics; image reconstruction; multispectral imaging; signal processing; delay and sum; delay multiply and sum photoacoustics; image reconstruction; multispectral imaging; signal processing; delay and sum; delay multiply and sum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kirchner, T.; Sattler, F.; Gröhl, J.; Maier-Hein, L. Signed Real-Time Delay Multiply and Sum Beamforming for Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging. J. Imaging 2018, 4, 121.

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