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Recycling 2017, 2(4), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling2040019

Primary Copper Smelter and Refinery as a Recycling Plant—A System Integrated Approach to Estimate Secondary Raw Material Tolerance

Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, 00076 Aalto, Finland
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in 6th International Conference Quo Vadis Recycling, High Tatras, Slovak Republic, 6–9 June 2017.
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Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quo Vadis Recycling 6)
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Abstract

The primary production of sulfide concentrates includes smelting to copper matte or blister copper, conversion of matte to blister copper, and refining to copper. Smelting, converting, and fire-refining can use a limited amount of secondary materials. Molten copper can effectively dissolve many metals, from valuable noble metals to harmful impurities such as bismuth. However, some of the impurity metals in copper are valuable in other applications. In this paper, we outline the main material flows in copper smelting and electrorefining and describe how minor metals can be recovered from secondary raw materials using copper as a carrier material. We will use a system integrated approach to define the factors that affect the recovery of different metals and copper quality. Metals typical in copper production are used as examples, like noble metals, As, Bi, Se, and Te, including metals in the EU critical raw materials list like PGM and Sb. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper scrap; WEEE; carrier metal; cathode quality; impurities copper scrap; WEEE; carrier metal; cathode quality; impurities
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Forsén, O.; Aromaa, J.; Lundström, M. Primary Copper Smelter and Refinery as a Recycling Plant—A System Integrated Approach to Estimate Secondary Raw Material Tolerance. Recycling 2017, 2, 19.

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