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Recycling 2017, 2(4), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling2040020

Leaching of Metals from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries

Hydrometallurgy and Corrosion, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering (CMET), School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, Vuorimiehentie 2, 02150 Espoo, Finland
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in 6th International Conference Quo Vadis Recycling, High Tatras, Slovak Republic, 6–9 June 2017.
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Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quo Vadis Recycling 6)
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Abstract

The recycling of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is becoming increasingly important due to the depletion of natural resources and potential pollution from the spent batteries. In this work, different types of acids (2 M citric (C6H8O7), 1 M oxalic (C2H2O4), 2 M sulfuric (H2SO4), 4 M hydrochloric (HCl), and 1 M nitric (HNO3) acid)) and reducing agents (hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glucose (C6H12O6) and ascorbic acid (C6H8O6)) were selected for investigating the recovery of valuable metals from waste LIBs. The crushed and sieved material contained on average 23% (w/w) cobalt, 3% (w/w) lithium, and 1–5% (w/w) nickel, copper, manganese, aluminum, and iron. Results indicated that mineral acids (4 M HCl and 2 M H2SO4 with 1% (v/v) H2O2) produced generally higher yields compared with organic acids, with a nearly complete dissolution of lithium, cobalt, and nickel at 25 °C with a slurry density of 5% (w/v). Further leaching experiments carried out with H2SO4 media and different reducing agents with a slurry density of 10% (w/v) show that nearly all of the cobalt and lithium can be leached out in sulfuric acid (2 M) when using C6H8O6 as a reducing agent (10% g/gscraps) at 80 °C. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion batteries; leaching; mineral acids; organic acids; reducing agents lithium-ion batteries; leaching; mineral acids; organic acids; reducing agents
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Aaltonen, M.; Peng, C.; Wilson, B.P.; Lundström, M. Leaching of Metals from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries. Recycling 2017, 2, 20.

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