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Article

Battery Scrap and Biochar Utilization for Improved Metal Recoveries in Nickel Slag Cleaning Conditions

1
Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
2
Murata Electronics Oy, Myllynkivenkuja 6, 01621 Vantaa, Finland
3
Boliden Harjavalta, Teollisuuskatu 1, 29200 Harjavalta, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Batteries 2020, 6(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6040058
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 25 November 2020 / Published: 2 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Battery Technologies)
Cobalt is a critical, high-value metal used extensively in batteries and other sustainable technologies. To secure its supply in future, it is utmost important to recover cobalt efficiently from industrial wastes and recycled End-of-Life batteries. This study aims at finding ways to improve the reduction of cobalt as well as valuable metals nickel and copper in nickel slag cleaning furnace conditions by using both traditional fossil-based coke and a more sustainable option, low-CO2 footprint biochar, as reductants. A cobalt-rich fraction of battery scrap (25.5 wt% Co) was also used as a secondary feed. The experimental technique consisted of reduction experiments with different times at 1400 °C under inert atmosphere, quick quenching and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis. The use of biochar resulted in faster reaction kinetics in the reduction process, compared to coke. Moreover, the presence of battery scrap had a clear impact on the behavior and reduction kinetics of the elements and/or enhanced settling and separation of matte and slag. The addition of scrap increased notably the distribution coefficients of the valuable metals but consequently also the iron concentration in matte which is the thermodynamic constraint of the slag cleaning process. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy storage materials; bio reducers; reduction kinetics; circular economy energy storage materials; bio reducers; reduction kinetics; circular economy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Avarmaa, K.; Järvenpää, M.; Klemettinen, L.; Marjakoski, M.; Taskinen, P.; Lindberg, D.; Jokilaakso, A. Battery Scrap and Biochar Utilization for Improved Metal Recoveries in Nickel Slag Cleaning Conditions. Batteries 2020, 6, 58. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6040058

AMA Style

Avarmaa K, Järvenpää M, Klemettinen L, Marjakoski M, Taskinen P, Lindberg D, Jokilaakso A. Battery Scrap and Biochar Utilization for Improved Metal Recoveries in Nickel Slag Cleaning Conditions. Batteries. 2020; 6(4):58. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6040058

Chicago/Turabian Style

Avarmaa, Katri, Marko Järvenpää, Lassi Klemettinen, Miikka Marjakoski, Pekka Taskinen, Daniel Lindberg, and Ari Jokilaakso. 2020. "Battery Scrap and Biochar Utilization for Improved Metal Recoveries in Nickel Slag Cleaning Conditions" Batteries 6, no. 4: 58. https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6040058

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