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A Post-Mortem Study of Stacked 16 Ah Graphite//LiFePO4 Pouch Cells Cycled at 5 °C

Helmholtz Institute Ulm (HIU), Helmholtzstrasse 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
Helmholtz-Institute Münster (IEK 12), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Corrensstraße 46, 48149 Münster, Germany
Grenoble Université Alpes, CEA-LITEN, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble, France
CIDETEC Energy Storage, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Gipuzkoa, Paseo Miramón 196, 20014 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
VITO/EnergyVille, Thor Park 8300, 3600 Genk, Belgium
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Batteries 2019, 5(2), 45;
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
PDF [5033 KB, uploaded 7 May 2019]


Herein, the post-mortem study on 16 Ah graphite//LiFePO4 pouch cells is reported. Aiming to understand their failure mechanism, taking place when cycling at low temperature, the analysis of the cell components taken from different portions of the stacks and from different positions in the electrodes, is performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Also, the recovered electrodes are used to reassemble half-cells for further cycle tests. The combination of the several techniques detects an inhomogeneous ageing of the electrodes along the stack and from the center to the edge of the electrode, most probably due to differences in the pressure experienced by the electrodes. Interestingly, XPS reveals that more electrolyte decomposition took place at the edge of the electrodes and at the outer part of the cell stack independently of the ageing conditions. Finally, the use of high cycling currents buffers the low temperature detrimental effects, resulting in longer cycle life and less inhomogeneities. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion; batteries; ageing; post-mortem analysis lithium-ion; batteries; ageing; post-mortem analysis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Moretti, A.; Carvalho, D.V.; Ehteshami, N.; Paillard, E.; Porcher, W.; Brun-Buisson, D.; Ducros, J.-B.; de Meatza, I.; Eguia-Barrio, A.; Trad, K.; Passerini, S. A Post-Mortem Study of Stacked 16 Ah Graphite//LiFePO4 Pouch Cells Cycled at 5 °C. Batteries 2019, 5, 45.

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