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Synthetic vs. Real Driving Cycles: A Comparison of Electric Vehicle Battery Degradation

Hawai’i Natural Energy Institute, SOEST, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, 1680 East-West Road, POST 109, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Batteries 2019, 5(2), 42;
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Automobile dependency and the inexorable proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) compels accurate predictions of cycle life across multiple usage conditions and for multiple lithium-ion battery systems. Synthetic driving cycles have been essential in accumulating data on EV battery lifetimes. However, since battery deterioration is path-dependent, the representability of synthetic cycles must be questioned. Hence, this work compared three different synthetic driving cycles to real driving data in terms of mimicking actual EV battery degradation. It was found that the average current and charge capacity during discharge were important parameters in determining the appropriate synthetic profile, and traffic conditions have a significant impact on cell lifetimes. In addition, a stage of accelerated capacity fade was observed and shown to be induced by an increased loss of lithium inventory (LLI) resulting from irreversible Li plating. New metrics, the ratio of the loss of active material at the negative electrode (LAMNE) to the LLI and the plating threshold, were proposed as possible predictors for a stage of accelerated degradation. The results presented here demonstrated tracking properties, such as capacity loss and resistance increase, were insufficient in predicting cell lifetimes, supporting the adoption of metrics based on the analysis of degradation modes. View Full-Text
Keywords: incremental capacity analysis; lithium-ion; electric vehicles; driving cycles; cell degradation incremental capacity analysis; lithium-ion; electric vehicles; driving cycles; cell degradation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Baure, G.; Dubarry, M. Synthetic vs. Real Driving Cycles: A Comparison of Electric Vehicle Battery Degradation. Batteries 2019, 5, 42.

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