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Recycling of Alkaline Batteries via a Carbothermal Reduction Process

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469, Turkey
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yalova University, Yalova 77100, Turkey
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Batteries 2019, 5(1), 35;
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy of Batteries Production and Recycling)
PDF [1758 KB, uploaded 19 March 2019]


Primary battery recycling has important environmental and economic benefits. According to battery sales worldwide, the most used battery type is alkaline batteries with 75% of market share due to having a higher performance than other primary batteries such as Zn–MnO2. In this study, carbothermal reduction for zinc oxide from battery waste was completed for both vacuum and Ar atmospheres. Thermodynamic data are evaluated for vacuum and Ar atmosphere reduction reactions and results for Zn reduction/evaporation are compared via the FactSage program. Zn vapor and manganese oxide were obtained as products. Zn vapor was re-oxidized in end products; manganese monoxide and steel container of batteries are evaluated as ferromanganese raw material. Effects of carbon source, vacuum, temperature and time were studied. The results show a recovery of 95.1% Zn by implementing a product at 1150 °C for 1 h without using the vacuum. The residues were characterized by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkaline battery; battery recycling; Carbothermal process alkaline battery; battery recycling; Carbothermal process

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Yeşiltepe, S.; Buğdaycı, M.; Yücel, O.; Şeşen, M.K. Recycling of Alkaline Batteries via a Carbothermal Reduction Process. Batteries 2019, 5, 35.

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