Primary battery recycling has important environmental and economic benefits. According to battery sales worldwide, the most used battery type is alkaline batteries with 75% of market share due to having a higher performance than other primary batteries such as Zn–MnO2
. In this study, carbothermal reduction for zinc oxide from battery waste was completed for both vacuum and Ar atmospheres. Thermodynamic data are evaluated for vacuum and Ar atmosphere reduction reactions and results for Zn reduction/evaporation are compared via the FactSage program. Zn vapor and manganese oxide were obtained as products. Zn vapor was re-oxidized in end products; manganese monoxide and steel container of batteries are evaluated as ferromanganese raw material. Effects of carbon source, vacuum, temperature and time were studied. The results show a recovery of 95.1% Zn by implementing a product at 1150 °C for 1 h without using the vacuum. The residues were characterized by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) methods.
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