The Emotional Experience of Flowers: Zoomed In, Zoomed Out and Painted
1.1. Flowers, Nature and Peoples’ Affective Reactions
1.2. Photograph vs. Art (Painting or Drawing)
1.3. Cultural Aspects of Flowers
1.4. Research Questions (RQ)
2.2. Study Design
- Flower photos (n = 6): Photos of cultivated (n = 3) and wildflowers (n = 3). Cultivated flowers are flowers that can typically be found in a flower shop. These flowers are not usually seen in nature. They are domesticated and are usually larger and hold more petals than their wild counterparts. Wildflowers on the other hand can be seen in nature in their natural environment. Our criteria for choosing the flowers’ pictures were (1) that the different flowers would be more or less familiar to people around the world (2) that they would all have a radial symmetry, and yet be visually different from one another (3) that they would be different colors.
- Nature photos (n = 6): Nature scenery without urban or cultivated parts. Nature landscapes were selected to represent different topographies, such as mountain, plains, greens and forests.
- Artwork (n = 3): Drawings of different flowers.
2.4. Statistical Analyzis of Quantitative Suvey Data
2.5. Qualitative Methods
2.6. Study Limitations
3.1. Quantitative Analyses
3.1.1. Flowers vs. Nature: Is There a Difference in Emotional Response towards Flowers (Cultivated and Wild) Compared to Nature Photos (with and without Flowers)?
3.1.2. Flowers vs. Drawings of Flowers
3.2. Qualitative Analyses
“I learned from the survey that I love flowers in all their forms of expression, it is hard to choose because I love them all. Any type of flower makes me happier”.
3.2.3. Drawings of Flowers
4.1. Flowers as Inducing Positive Emotions
4.1.1. Diverse Flowers
4.1.2. Cultural Differences
4.1.3. Flowers Are Feminine
4.2. Reactions to Images of Flowers Are Qualitatively Different Than Reactions to Images of Nature
4.3. Differences in Reactions to Images of “Real” Flowers versus Art Images (Drawings) of Flowers
4.4. Differences in Reactions to Flowers Based on Cultural/Geographical Considerations
5. Concluding Remarks
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Flower Images||Nature Images||p-Values|
|Familiarity||5.08 (2.15)||4.57 (2.13)|
|Liking||5.54 (1.52)||5.68 (1.36)||F (1, 7) = 42.788,|
p < 0.001
|Valence (Unpleasant/Pleasant)||5.48 (1.46)||5.63 (1.34)||F (1, 7) = 47.254,|
p < 0.001
|Arousal (Calm/Excited)||3.52 (1.59)||3.18 (1.71)||F (1, 7) = 55.285,|
p < 0.001
|Wake (Tired/Awake)||4.68 (1.24)||4.77 (1.29)||F (1, 7) = 12.562,|
p < 0.001
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Urakami, J.; Huss, E.; Nagamine, M.; Czamanski-Cohen, J.; Zaccai, M. The Emotional Experience of Flowers: Zoomed In, Zoomed Out and Painted. Horticulturae 2022, 8, 668. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8070668
Urakami J, Huss E, Nagamine M, Czamanski-Cohen J, Zaccai M. The Emotional Experience of Flowers: Zoomed In, Zoomed Out and Painted. Horticulturae. 2022; 8(7):668. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8070668Chicago/Turabian Style
Urakami, Jacqueline, Ephrat Huss, Mitsue Nagamine, Johanna Czamanski-Cohen, and Michele Zaccai. 2022. "The Emotional Experience of Flowers: Zoomed In, Zoomed Out and Painted" Horticulturae 8, no. 7: 668. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8070668