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Article

Postharvest Fumigation of Fresh Citrus with Cylinderized Phosphine to Control Bean Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Avenue, Parlier, CA 93648-9757, USA
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Academic Editor: Sergio Ruffo Roberto
Horticulturae 2021, 7(6), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060134
Received: 3 May 2021 / Revised: 26 May 2021 / Accepted: 3 June 2021 / Published: 5 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Propagation and Post-harvest of Fruit Crops)
Bean thrips (BT), Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande), is a pest of concern to certain countries that import fresh citrus fruit from California, USA. A series of laboratory-scale exploratory fumigations with phosphine at 4.9 ± 0.3 °C (mean ± 2 SD; x¯±2s) were conducted to evaluate the postharvest control of adult BT. Models of the duration–mortality response predicted ca. 99% mortality of BT populations when headspace concentrations of phosphine, [PH3], are maintained at levels ≥0.4 g m−3 (250 ppmv (µL L−1)) and ≤1.5 g m−3 (1000 ppmv (µL L−1)) for 12 h, with the duration representing the lower bound of the 95% confidence level (CL). Confirmatory fumigations, each lasting 12 h, were then conducted using BT-infested sweet oranges, Citrus sinensis (L.), at pulp temperature (T) ≤ 5 °C to corroborate the exploratory results. Three formulations of cylinderized phosphine were used: 1.6% phosphine by volume in nitrogen, VAPORPH3OS®, and ECOFUME®, all applied at two levels, ca. 1.5 g m−3 (1000 ppmv (µL L−1)), as well as 0.5 g m−3 (300 ppmv (µL L−1)). Collectively, across the formulations, an applied dose of ca. 1.5 g m−3 (1000 ppmv (µL L−1)) resulted in 0 survivors from 38,993 (probit 8.60, 95% CL; probit 9, 72% CL) treated BT, while an applied dose of 0.5 g m−3 (300 ppmv (µL L−1)) resulted in 0 survivors from 31,204 (probit 8.56, 95% CL; probit 9, 70% CL) treated BT. Results were discussed in the context of commercial and operational features of quarantine and pre-shipment (QPS) uses of phosphine to treat fresh fruit and, specifically, the control of BT in fresh citrus exported from California, USA, to Australia. View Full-Text
Keywords: quarantine and pre-shipment (QPS); cylinderized phosphine; postharvest citrus quarantine and pre-shipment (QPS); cylinderized phosphine; postharvest citrus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walse, S.S.; Jimenez, L.R. Postharvest Fumigation of Fresh Citrus with Cylinderized Phosphine to Control Bean Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Horticulturae 2021, 7, 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060134

AMA Style

Walse SS, Jimenez LR. Postharvest Fumigation of Fresh Citrus with Cylinderized Phosphine to Control Bean Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Horticulturae. 2021; 7(6):134. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walse, Spencer S., and Leonel R. Jimenez 2021. "Postharvest Fumigation of Fresh Citrus with Cylinderized Phosphine to Control Bean Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)" Horticulturae 7, no. 6: 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7060134

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