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Article

Alleviation of Nematode-Mediated Apple Replant Disease by Pre-Cultivation of Tagetes

1
Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)—Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Division of Plant Pathology & Crop Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
3
Department of Horticulture, Landwirtschaftskammer Schleswig-Holstein, 25373 Ellerhoop, Germany
4
Centre for Business Management in Horticulture and Applied Research, Leibniz University Hannover, 30419 Hannover, Germany
5
Woody Plant and Propagation Physiology, Institute of Horticultural Production Systems, Leibniz University Hannover, 30419 Hannover, Germany
6
Faculty of Agriculture/Environment/Chemistry, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW) Dresden—University of Applied Sciences, 01069 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Francini
Horticulturae 2021, 7(11), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7110433
Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 19 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 October 2021 / Published: 25 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Apple replant disease (ARD) is a severe problem in orchards and tree nurseries caused by yet unknown soil biota that accumulate over replanting cycles. This study tested the contribution of nematodes to ARD, and cultivation of Tagetes as a control option. In a pot experiment, Tagetes patula or Tagetes tenuifolia were grown in ARD soil, incorporated or removed. Nematodes extracted from untreated ARD soil and washed on 20-µm sieves induced ARD symptoms when inoculated to apple plantlets growing in a sterile substrate. In contrast, nematodes from Tagetes treated ARD soil did not reduce root growth compared to uninoculated plants, irrespective of Tagetes species and incorporation. In plots of five apple tree nurseries or orchards, either Tagetes or grass was grown on ARD soil. Nematodes extracted from the grass plots and inoculated to apple plantlets significantly reduced plant growth compared to nematodes from Tagetes plots for all five farms. Apple rootstocks showed overall a significantly higher increase in shoot base diameter when grown on Tagetes-treated plots compared to grass plots, while this effect differed among farms. Plant-parasitic nematodes were too low in abundance to explain plant damage. In conclusion, Tagetes alleviated ARD by changing the nematode community in soil. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tagetes; marigold; apple replant disease; nematodes; pest control; soil biome management; Malus Tagetes; marigold; apple replant disease; nematodes; pest control; soil biome management; Malus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanfra, X.; Obawolu, T.; Wrede, A.; Strolka, B.; Winkelmann, T.; Hardeweg, B.; Heuer, H. Alleviation of Nematode-Mediated Apple Replant Disease by Pre-Cultivation of Tagetes. Horticulturae 2021, 7, 433. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7110433

AMA Style

Kanfra X, Obawolu T, Wrede A, Strolka B, Winkelmann T, Hardeweg B, Heuer H. Alleviation of Nematode-Mediated Apple Replant Disease by Pre-Cultivation of Tagetes. Horticulturae. 2021; 7(11):433. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7110433

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanfra, Xorla, Taye Obawolu, Andreas Wrede, Bernhard Strolka, Traud Winkelmann, Bernd Hardeweg, and Holger Heuer. 2021. "Alleviation of Nematode-Mediated Apple Replant Disease by Pre-Cultivation of Tagetes" Horticulturae 7, no. 11: 433. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7110433

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