Sustainable, economically feasible, and green resources for energy and chemical products have people’s attention due to global energy demand and environmental issues. Last several decades, diverse lignocellulosic biomass has been studied for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. Industrial hemp has great market potential with its versatile applications. With the increase of the hemp-related markets with hemp seed, hemp oil, and fiber, the importance of hemp biomass utilization has also been emphasized in recent studies. Biological conversions of industrial hemp into bioethanol and other biochemicals have been introduced to address the aforementioned energy and environmental challenges. Its high cellulose content and the increased production because of the demand for cannabidiol oil and hempseed products make it a promising future bioenergy and biochemical source. Effective valorization of the underutilized hemp biomass can also improve the cost-competitiveness of hemp products. This manuscript reviews recent biological conversion strategies for industrial hemp and its characteristics. Current understanding of the industrial hemp properties and applied conversion technologies are briefly summarized. In addition, challenges and future perspectives of the biological conversion with industrial hemp are discussed.
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