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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Co-Inoculation with Pichia fermentans and Pediococcus acidilactici on Metabolite Produced During Fermentation and Volatile Composition of Coffee Beans

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Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), 19011Curitiba, Paraná 81531-980, Brazil
2
Departament of Chemistry and Biology, Federal University of Technology—Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba PR 80230-901, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fermentation 2019, 5(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5030067
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Biotechnology 3.0)
Removal of the mucilage layer of coffee fruits by a fermentation process has became an interesting strategy to improve coffee quality, which is able to assist the formation of flavored molecules. In this study, four sets of inoculation protocols were evaluated using ripe and immature coffee fruits, respectively, including (i) pure culture fermentation with Pichia fermentans, (ii) pure culture fermentation with Pediococcus acidilactici, (ii) combined fermentation with P. fermentans and P. acidilactici, and (iv) spontaneous, non-inoculated control. The initial pulp sugar concentration of ripe coffee fruits (0.57 and 1.13 g/L glucose and fructose content, respectively) was significantly higher than immature coffee pulp (0.13 and 0.26 g/L glucose and fructose content, respectively). Combined inoculation with P. fermentans and P. acidilactici of ripe coffee beans increased pulp sugar consumption and production of metabolites (lactic acid, ethanol, and ethyl acetate), evidencing a positive synergic interaction between these two microbial groups. On the other hand, when immature coffee fruits were used, only pure culture inoculation with P. fermentans was able to improve metabolite formation during fermentation, while combined treatment showed no significant effect. Altogether, 30 volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified with HS- solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) in fermented coffee beans. In comparison with pure cultures and spontaneous process, combined treatment prominently enhanced the aroma complexity of ripe coffee beans, with a sharp increase in benzeneacetaldehyde, 2-heptanol, and benzylalcohol. Consistent with the monitoring of the fermentation process, only P. fermentans treatment was able to impact the volatile composition of immature coffee beans. The major impacted compounds were 2-hexanol, nonanal, and D-limonene. In summary, this study demonstrated the great potential of the combined use of yeast and lactic acid bacteria to improve fermentation efficiency and to positively influence the chemical composition of coffee beans. Further studies are still required to investigate the mechanisms of synergism between these two microbial groups during the fermentation process and influence the sensory properties of coffee products. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee processing; coffee fermentation; starter culture; coffee beverage; yeast coffee processing; coffee fermentation; starter culture; coffee beverage; yeast
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da Silva Vale, A.; de Melo Pereira, G.V.; de Carvalho Neto, D.P.; Rodrigues, C.; Pagnoncelli, M.G.B.; Soccol, C.R. Effect of Co-Inoculation with Pichia fermentans and Pediococcus acidilactici on Metabolite Produced During Fermentation and Volatile Composition of Coffee Beans. Fermentation 2019, 5, 67.

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