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Fermentation 2017, 3(2), 21;

Microbial Propionic Acid Production

Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Present address: Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
Dow Agrosciences LLC, Indianapolis, 46268 IN, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Gunnar Lidén
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carboxylic Acid Production)
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Propionic acid (propionate) is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: propionic acid; propionibacteria; fermentation propionic acid; propionibacteria; fermentation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gonzalez-Garcia, R.A.; McCubbin, T.; Navone, L.; Stowers, C.; Nielsen, L.K.; Marcellin, E. Microbial Propionic Acid Production. Fermentation 2017, 3, 21.

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