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Controlling the Incorporation of Phosphorus Functionalities on Carbon Nanofibers: Effects on the Catalytic Performance of Fructose Dehydration

1
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano 20133, Italy
2
Cardiff Catalysis Institute, School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
*
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Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Carbon Materials in Catalysis)
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Abstract

Phosphorylated carbons have been reported to be effective catalysts in dehydration reactions for biomass valorization. The amount and the nature of P groups are a key parameter affecting the catalytic performances of functionalized materials. Herein, we investigate the role of structural and surface properties of carbon-based materials, specifically carbon nanofibers, in determining the amount of P-functionalities. In order to incorporate P groups on carbon surfaces, various carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with different graphitization degrees have been functionalized through treatment with a H3PO4-HNO3 mixture at 150 °C. The pristine materials, as well as the functionalization protocol, were properly selected to achieve an effective functionalization without drastically altering the morphology of the samples. Surface and structural properties of the synthesized functionalized materials have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The catalytic behavior of phosphorylated carbon nanofibers has been evaluated in the selective dehydration of fructose to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to elucidate structure-activity relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon materials; nanofibers; functionalization; heteroatoms; nanotechnology; biomass valorization; heterogeneous catalysis carbon materials; nanofibers; functionalization; heteroatoms; nanotechnology; biomass valorization; heterogeneous catalysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Campisi, S.; Sanchez Trujillo, F.J.; Motta, D.; Davies, T.E.; Dimitratos, N.; Villa, A. Controlling the Incorporation of Phosphorus Functionalities on Carbon Nanofibers: Effects on the Catalytic Performance of Fructose Dehydration. C 2018, 4, 9.

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