Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Extrusion-Based 3D Printing of Poly(ethylene glycol) Diacrylate Hydrogels Containing Positively and Negatively Charged Groups
Previous Article in Journal
Concepts for Developing Physical Gels of Chitosan and of Chitosan Derivatives
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

A Methylcellulose Hydrogel as Support for 3D Plotting of Complex Shaped Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds

Centre for Translational Bone, Joint and Soft Tissue Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus and Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany
Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Hydrogels for (Bio)printing Applications)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3042 KB, uploaded 30 August 2018]   |  


3D plotting is an additive manufacturing technology enabling biofabrication, thus the integration of cells or biologically sensitive proteins or growth factors into the manufacturing process. However, most (bio-)inks developed for 3D plotting were not shown to be processed into clinically relevant geometries comprising critical overhangs and cavities, which would collapse without a sufficient support material. Herein, we have developed a support hydrogel ink based on methylcellulose (mc), which is able to act as support as long as the co-plotted main structure is not stable. Therefore, 6 w/v %, 8 w/v % and 10 w/v % mc were allowed to swell in water, resulting in viscous inks, which were characterized for their rheological and extrusion properties. The successful usage of 10 w/v % mc as support ink was proven by multichannel plotting of the support together with a plottable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) acting as main structure. CPC scaffolds displaying critical overhangs or a large central cavity could be plotted accurately with the newly developed mc support ink. The dissolution properties of mc allowed complete removal of the gel without residuals, once CPC setting was finished. Finally, we fabricated a scaphoid bone model by computed tomography data acquisition and co-extrusion of CPC and the mc support hydrogel. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium phosphate cement; methylcellulose; 3D plotting; support; hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate cement; methylcellulose; 3D plotting; support; hydroxyapatite

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ahlfeld, T.; Köhler, T.; Czichy, C.; Lode, A.; Gelinsky, M. A Methylcellulose Hydrogel as Support for 3D Plotting of Complex Shaped Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds. Gels 2018, 4, 68.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Gels EISSN 2310-2861 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top