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Article

Incidence of Candidemia Is Higher in COVID-19 versus Non-COVID-19 Patients, but Not Driven by Intrahospital Transmission

1
Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, 28007 Madrid, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, 28007 Madrid, Spain
3
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red (CIBER) de Enfermedades Respiratorias-CIBERES (CB06/06/0058), 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The Gregorio Marañón Microbiology-ID COVID-19 Study Group members are listed in the acknowledgments.
Academic Editor: Sofia Costa-de-Oliveira
J. Fungi 2022, 8(3), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030305
Received: 12 February 2022 / Revised: 9 March 2022 / Accepted: 11 March 2022 / Published: 16 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections and COVID-19)
There is scarce information on the actual incidence of candidemia in COVID-19 patients. In addition, comparative studies of candidemia episodes in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients are heterogeneous. Here, we assessed the real incidence, epidemiology, and etiology of candidemia in COVID-19 patients, and compared them with those without COVID-19 (2020 vs. 2019 and 2020, respectively). We also genotyped all C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis isolates (n = 88), causing candidemia in both groups, providing for the first time a genotypic characterization of isolates gathered in patients with either COVID-19 or non-COVID-19. Incidence of candidemia was higher in patients with COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 (4.73 vs. 0.85 per 1000 admissions; 3.22 vs. 1.14 per 10,000 days of stay). No substantial intergroup differences were found, including mortality. Genotyping proved the presence of a low number of patients involved in clusters, allowing us to rule out rampant patient-to-patient Candida transmission. The four patients, involved in two clusters, had catheter-related candidemia diagnosed in the first COVID-19 wave, which demonstrates breaches in catheter management policies occurring in such an overwhelming situation. In conclusion, the incidence of candidemia in patients with COVID-19 is significantly higher than in those without COVID-19. However, genotyping shows that this increase is not due to uncontrolled intrahospital transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; candidemia; viral–fungal coinfection; epidemiology; risk factors; invasive fungal infection; invasive candidiasis COVID-19; candidemia; viral–fungal coinfection; epidemiology; risk factors; invasive fungal infection; invasive candidiasis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Machado, M.; Estévez, A.; Sánchez-Carrillo, C.; Guinea, J.; Escribano, P.; Alonso, R.; Valerio, M.; Padilla, B.; Bouza, E.; Muñoz, P. Incidence of Candidemia Is Higher in COVID-19 versus Non-COVID-19 Patients, but Not Driven by Intrahospital Transmission. J. Fungi 2022, 8, 305. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030305

AMA Style

Machado M, Estévez A, Sánchez-Carrillo C, Guinea J, Escribano P, Alonso R, Valerio M, Padilla B, Bouza E, Muñoz P. Incidence of Candidemia Is Higher in COVID-19 versus Non-COVID-19 Patients, but Not Driven by Intrahospital Transmission. Journal of Fungi. 2022; 8(3):305. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030305

Chicago/Turabian Style

Machado, Marina, Agustín Estévez, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Jesús Guinea, Pilar Escribano, Roberto Alonso, Maricela Valerio, Belén Padilla, Emilio Bouza, and Patricia Muñoz. 2022. "Incidence of Candidemia Is Higher in COVID-19 versus Non-COVID-19 Patients, but Not Driven by Intrahospital Transmission" Journal of Fungi 8, no. 3: 305. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8030305

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