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Review

Candida glabrata: Pathogenicity and Resistance Mechanisms for Adaptation and Survival

1
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano 700241, Nigeria
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose L. Lopez-Ribot
J. Fungi 2021, 7(8), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7080667
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 5 August 2021 / Accepted: 5 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Therapeutic Approaches of Candida Infections)
Candida glabrata is a yeast of increasing medical relevance, particularly in critically ill patients. It is the second most isolated Candida species associated with invasive candidiasis (IC) behind C. albicans. The attributed higher incidence is primarily due to an increase in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) population, cancer, and diabetic patients. The elderly population and the frequent use of indwelling medical devices are also predisposing factors. This work aimed to review various virulence factors that facilitate the survival of pathogenic C. glabrata in IC. The available published research articles related to the pathogenicity of C. glabrata were retrieved and reviewed from four credible databases, mainly Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus. The articles highlighted many virulence factors associated with pathogenicity in C. glabrata, including adherence to susceptible host surfaces, evading host defences, replicative ageing, and producing hydrolytic enzymes (e.g., phospholipases, proteases, and haemolysins). The factors facilitate infection initiation. Other virulent factors include iron regulation and genetic mutations. Accordingly, biofilm production, tolerance to high-stress environments, resistance to neutrophil killings, and development of resistance to antifungal drugs, notably to fluconazole and other azole derivatives, were reported. The review provided evident pathogenic mechanisms and antifungal resistance associated with C. glabrata in ensuring its sustenance and survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida glabrata; candidiasis; virulence factors; biofilm; antifungal drug resistance Candida glabrata; candidiasis; virulence factors; biofilm; antifungal drug resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hassan, Y.; Chew, S.Y.; Than, L.T.L. Candida glabrata: Pathogenicity and Resistance Mechanisms for Adaptation and Survival. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7080667

AMA Style

Hassan Y, Chew SY, Than LTL. Candida glabrata: Pathogenicity and Resistance Mechanisms for Adaptation and Survival. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(8):667. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7080667

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hassan, Yahaya, Shu Yih Chew, and Leslie Thian Lung Than. 2021. "Candida glabrata: Pathogenicity and Resistance Mechanisms for Adaptation and Survival" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 8: 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7080667

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