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Review

Plant Preparations and Compounds with Activities against Biofilms Formed by Candida spp.

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Wieniawskiego 3, 61-712 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, National Research Institute, Wojska Polskiego 71b, 60-630 Poznań, Poland
3
Division of Perinatology and Women’s Diseases, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Polna 33, 60-535 Poznań, Poland
4
Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Division of Perinatology and Women’s Diseases, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Polna 33, 60-535 Poznań, Poland
5
Department of Pharmacology and Phytochemistry, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, National Research Institute, Kolejowa 2, 62-064 Plewiska, Poland
6
Division of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Podhale Multidisciplinary Hospital, Szpitalna 14, 34-400 Nowy Targ, Poland
7
Department of Botany, Breeding and Agricultural Technology of Medicinal Plants, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, National Research Institute, Kolejowa 2, 62-064 Plewiska, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Célia F. Rodrigues and Jesus A. Romo
J. Fungi 2021, 7(5), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050360
Received: 20 March 2021 / Revised: 30 April 2021 / Accepted: 1 May 2021 / Published: 5 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biofilms 2020)

Abstract

Fungi from the genus Candida are very important human and animal pathogens. Many strains can produce biofilms, which inhibit the activity of antifungal drugs and increase the tolerance or resistance to them as well. Clinically, this process leads to persistent infections and increased mortality. Today, many Candida species are resistant to drugs, including C. auris, which is a multiresistant pathogen. Natural compounds may potentially be used to combat multiresistant and biofilm-forming strains. The aim of this review was to present plant-derived preparations and compounds that inhibit Candida biofilm formation by at least 50%. A total of 29 essential oils and 16 plant extracts demonstrate activity against Candida biofilms, with the following families predominating: Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Apiacae. Lavandula dentata (0.045–0.07 mg/L), Satureja macrosiphon (0.06–8 mg/L), and Ziziphora tenuior (2.5 mg/L) have the best antifungal activity. High efficacy has also been observed with Artemisia judaica, Lawsonia inermis, and Thymus vulgaris. Moreover, 69 plant compounds demonstrate activity against Candida biofilms. Activity in concentrations below 16 mg/L was observed with phenolic compounds (thymol, pterostilbene, and eugenol), sesquiterpene derivatives (warburganal, polygodial, and ivalin), chalconoid (lichochalcone A), steroidal saponin (dioscin), flavonoid (baicalein), alkaloids (waltheriones), macrocyclic bisbibenzyl (riccardin D), and cannabinoid (cannabidiol). The above compounds act on biofilm formation and/or mature biofilms. In summary, plant preparations and compounds exhibit anti-biofilm activity against Candida. Given this, they may be a promising alternative to antifungal drugs.
Keywords: Candida; biofilm; treatment; antifungals; natural compounds; essential oil; extract; minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) Candida; biofilm; treatment; antifungals; natural compounds; essential oil; extract; minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)

1. Introduction

The genus Candida contains about 150 species; however, most are environmental organisms. The most medically important is Candida albicans, which accounts for about 80% of infections. C. albicans causes more than 400,000 cases of bloodstream life-threatening infections annually, with a mortality rate of about 42% [1]. Candida non-albicans species that are mainly responsible for infections are C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. dubliniensis [2]. Less frequently identified are C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. rugosa, C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis, C. famata, C. inconspicua, and C. kefyr [3].
C. albicans is a member of the commensal microflora. It colonizes the oral mucosal surface of 30–50% of healthy people. The rate of carriage increases with age and in persons with dental prostheses up to 60% [4,5,6]. Opportunistic infection caused by Candida species is termed candidiasis. At least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (or thrush) concerns 50 to 75% of women of childbearing age [7]. Candidiasis can also affect the oral cavity, penis, skin, nails, cornea, and other parts of the body. In immunocompromised persons, untreated candidiasis poses the risk of systemic infection and fungemia [5,8]. Candida can be an important etiological factor in the infection of chronic wounds that are difficult to treat; this is mainly related to the production of biofilm [9].
Treatment of candidiasis depends on the infection site and the patient’s condition. According to guidelines, vulvovaginal candidiasis should be treated with oral or topical fluconazole; however, regarding C. glabrata infection, topical boric acid, nystatin, or flucytosine is suggested. In oropharyngeal candidiasis, the treatment options include clotrimazole, miconazole, or nystatin, and in severe disease, fluconazole or voriconazole. In candidemia and invasive candidiasis, the drugs of choice are echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin), fluconazole, or voriconazole; in resistant strains, amphoteticin B is used. In selected cases of candidemia caused by C. krusei, voriconazole is recommended [10,11,12]. More details can be found in the Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America [12] and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases [11]. Increasingly, Candida species are becoming resistant to drugs. Marak and Dhanashree [13] tested the resistance of 90 Candida strains isolated from different clinical samples, such as pus, urine, blood, and body fluid. Their study revealed that about 41% of C. albicans strains are resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. Simultaneously, about 41% of C. tropicalis strains are resistant to voriconazole and about 36% of strains to fluconazole. In strains of C. krusei, about 23% are resistant to fluconazole and about 18% to voriconazole. Rudramurthy et al. [14] studied resistance in C. auris, which is considered a multiresistant pathogen. Among 74 strains obtained from patients with candidemia, over 90% of strains were resistant to fluconazole and about 73% to voriconazole. Virulence factors of Candida species include the secretion of hydrolases, the transition of yeast to hyphae, phenotypic switching, and biofilm formation [15,16]. All microorganisms in biofilm form are more resistant to antimicrobial and host factors, which leads to difficulties in eradication [17]. It has also been shown that resistance to drugs increases significantly in the case of Candida biofilm occurrence. Biofilm prevents the spread of antifungals; moreover, fluconazole is bound by the biofilm matrix [18]. The formation of a Candida biofilm during infection increases mortality, length of hospital stay, and cost of antifungal therapy [19].
Due to the above, new antifungal drugs are sought that could effectively combat not only planktonic fungi but also fungal biofilms. The natural compounds offer promise, with many acting on Candida species or biofilms in vitro [20].
The aim of this review was to present plant-derived natural compounds that have an effect against biofilms formed by Candida species.

2. Materials and Methods

In this review, publications available in PubMed and Scopus databases and through the Google search engine were taken into account. The following keywords and their combinations were used: “antifungal,” “Candida,” “anti-biofilm,” “biofilm,” “plant,” “compound,” “extract,” and “essential oil.” The principal inclusion criterion was the inhibition of biofilm formation by at least 50%. We focused on biofilm inhibition assays, in which the time of culture allowed for Candida biofilm maturation was at least 24 hours. Articles from the year 2000 to the present were taken into account. All articles published in predatory journals were rejected.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Plant Preparations That Display Activity against Candida Biofilms

The present review includes 60 articles in which Candida biofilm formation was inhibited by at least 50%. It has been shown that preparations from 34 plants demonstrate activity against Candida biofilms. Among them were 29 essential oils and 16 extracts. The plants from the following families dominated: Lamiaceae (6 species in 5 genera), Myrtaceae (5 species in 4 genera), Asteraceae (4 species in 4 genera), Fabaceae (4 species in 3 genera), and Apiacae (4 species in 2 genera).
Plants from the Lamiaceae family had the best antifungal activity, including Lavandula dentata (0.045–0.07 mg/L) [21], Satureja macrosiphon (0.06–8 mg/L) [22], and Ziziphora tenuior (2.5 mg/L) [23]. Artemisia judaica (2.5 mg/L) from the Asteraceae family [24], Lawsonia inermis (2.5–12.5 mg/L) from the Lythraceae family [25], and Thymus vulgaris (12.5 mg/L) from the Lamiaceae family [26] likewise exhibited good antifungal activity (Table 1). All preparations were essential oils, with the exception of Lawsonia inermis, which was an extract. Most of the plant preparations presented in Table 1 acted on biofilm formation and/or mature biofilms.
Antibiofilm activity may vary between plants in the same family. For example, in the Lamiaceae family, essential oil from Lavandula dentata acted against C. albicans biofilm at concentrations of 0.045–0.07 µL/mL [21], while essential oil from Satureja hortensis acted against the same biofilm at concentrations of 400–4800 mg/L [51]. There may also be large differences within the same species, due to various reasons. This may be influenced by, for example, different research methodologies, the use of different strains of fungi, and different chemical compositions depending on the plant variety, country, and season of harvest. A notable example of such a difference is observed with Mentha × piperita. In studies by Benzaid et al. [44], essential oil of M. piperita acted against Candida biofilm at a concentration of 10 µL/mL. However, the work of Agarwal et al. [38] showed that the same essential oil was active at 800 µL/mL.
Changes in the content of active substances were described by Gonçalves et al. [56]. They showed that in essential oil from Mentha cervina collected in August, the amount of isomenthone was 8.7% and pulegone was 75.1%. However, in essential oil collected in February, the ratio of the two compounds reversed and amounted to 77.0% for isomenthone and 12.9% for pulegone. The method of obtaining the compounds likewise had an influence on their content in the final essential oil. In a study by Ćavar et al. [57], the composition of essential oils of Calamintha glandulosa differed depending on the extraction method. The level of menthone was 3.3% using aqueous reflux extraction, 4.7% using hydrodistillation, and 8.3% using steam distillation, while the concentration of shisofuran was only 0.1% using hydrodistillation and steam distillation, while aqueous reflux yielded 9.7%.

3.2. Plant Compounds That Display Activity against Candida Biofilm

It has been shown that 69 compounds obtained from plants demonstrate activity against Candida biofilms (Table 2). Among these, the most common are monotherpenes (20), followed by sesquiterpene lactones (7) and sesquiterpenes (6). Another big group is also phenolic compounds, including phenols (6), phenolic acids (5), phenolic aldehydes (2), polyphenols (2), and phenolic alcohol (1).
In terms of activity, large differences were found, depending on the authors cited. Eugenol and thymol serve as good examples. Both compounds exhibited excellent activity in some studies (from 12.5 mg/L for eugenol [58] and 1.56 mg/L for thymol [26]), and in other studies, the activity was very poor (up to 80,000 for both [59]). These differences may be related, for example, to a different purity of the compound, a different fungal suspension density, or even to the use of other Candida strains with different sensitivities to chemical substances. A number of other factors, such as the type of culture medium, pH of the medium, incubation time, and temperature may likewise influence the antimicrobial activity [20].
According to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), the antifungal clinical breakpoints are between 0.001 mg/L and 16 mg/L [60]. Using EUCAST guidelines in this review, the most active compounds that inhibit (>50%) Candida biofilm formation are lichochalcone A (from 0.2 mg/L) [61], thymol (from 3.12 mg/L) [26], dioscin (from 3.9 mg/L) [31], baicalein (from 4 mg/L) [62], warburganal (4.5 mg/L) [52], pterostilbene, waltheriones and riccardin D (both from 8 mg/L) [63,64,65], polygodial (10.8 mg/L) [52], cannabidiol and eugenol (both from 12.5 mg/L) [58,66], and ivalin (15.4 mg/L) [67]. It is interesting that monotherpenes, which represent the highest percentage of substances listed in Table 2, are not the most active compounds. The two larger groups with the best activity are phenolic compounds (thymol, pterostilbene, and eugenol), and sesquiterpene derivatives (warburganal, polygodial, and ivalin). Single compounds with the highest observed activity belong to chalconoids (lichochalcone A), steroidal saponins (dioscin), flavonoids (baicalein), alkaloids (waltheriones), macrocyclic bisbibenzyls (riccardin D), and cannabinoids (cannabidiol). Most of the compounds presented in Table 2 acted on biofilm formation and/or mature biofilm.

4. Conclusions

Plant preparations (essential oils and extracts) and pure compounds exhibit anti-biofilm activity against Candida species. Some of them are characterized by high activity in concentrations below 16 mg/L. Given this activity at relatively low concentrations, some may prove to be promising alternatives to antifungal drugs, especially in the cases of resistant or multiresistant strains of Candida. Moreover, the simple chemical structures involved and relative ease of extraction from natural sources warrant further research into the development of new, promising, and much-needed plant-based antifungals.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, T.M.K. and M.O.; methodology, T.M.K.; analysis of results, T.M.K. and M.O.; writing—original draft preparation, T.M.K., M.O., A.S.-M., H.W., and A.A.; writing—review and editing, T.M.K. and M.O.; supervision, T.M.K.; funding acquisition, T.M.K. and H.W. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Acknowledgments

We are very grateful to Mark Stasiewicz for English language corrections.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Table 1. Antifungal (MICs) and anti-biofilm (inhibition >50%) activity of plant preparations (essential oils or extracts).
Table 1. Antifungal (MICs) and anti-biofilm (inhibition >50%) activity of plant preparations (essential oils or extracts).
Name of Plant
(Family)
Main Compounds Presented in the Reference
(EO: Essential Oil)
Targeted Species of CandidaMICs
(mg/L; mL/L)
Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by at Least 50% (mg/L; mL/L)Inhibited Stage of Biofilm; Method of Biofilm DetectionRef.
Acorus calamus var. angustatus Besser = A. tatarinowii Schott
(Acoraceae)
EO: asaraldehyde, 1-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol, α-asarone, β-asarone, γ-asarone,
acotatarone C
C. albicans51.250–200Mature biofilm; crystal violet and fluorescence microscopy[27]
Allium sativum L.
(Amaryllidaceae)
Extract: allicinC. albicans40060Biofilm formation; XTT[28]
Aloysia gratissima (Aff & Hook).Tr
(Verbenaceae)
EO: E-pinocamphone (16.07%), β-pinene (12.01%), guaiol (8.53%), E-pinocarveol acetate (8.19%)C. albicans15500Biofilm formation; crystal violet[29]
Artemisia judaica L.
(Asteraceae)
EO: piperitone (30.4%), camphor (16.1%), ethyl cinnamate (11.0%), chrysanthenone (6.7%)C. albicans1.252.5Mature biofilm; XTT[24]
C. guillermondii1.252.5
C. krusei1.252.5
C. parapsilosis1.252.5
C. tropicalis1.252.5
Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler
(Combretaceae)
Extract: gallic acid, kaempferol, epicatechin, ellagic acid, vitexin, and corilaginC. albicans625312.5Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; culture[30]
Chamaecostus cuspidatus (Nees & Mart.) C.Specht & D.W.Stev.
(Costaceae)
Extract: dioscin,
aferoside A, aferoside C
C. albicans25015.62Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; MTT[31]
Cinnamomum verum J. Presl
(Lauraceae)
EO: eugenol (77.22%), benzyl benzoate (4.53%), trans-caryophyllene (3.39%), acetyl eugenol (2.75%), linalool 2.11%C. albicans1000150Biofilm adhesion; XTT[32]
C. dubliniensis1000200
C. tropicalis1000350
Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck
(Rutaceae)
EO: limonene (53.4%), neral (11%), geraniol (9%), trans-limonene oxide (7%), nerol (6%)C. albicans5002000Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[33]
C. glabrata2501000
C. krusei500125
C. orthopsilosis5001000
C. parapsilosis5002000
C. tropicalis2502000
Copaifera paupera (Herzog) Dwyer
(Fabaceae)
Extract: galloylquinic acids, quercetrin, afzelinC. glabrata5.8946.87Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[34]
Copaifera reticulata Ducke
(Fabaceae)
Extract: galloylquinic acids, quercetrin, afzelinC. glabrata5.8946.87Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[34]
Coriandrum sativum L.
(Apiaceae)
EO: 1-decanol (33.91%), E-2-decen-1-ol (23.59%), 2-dodecen-1-ol (13.06%), E-2-tetradecen-1-ol (5.46%)C. albicans7250Biofilm formation; crystal violet[29]
EO: decanal (19.09%), trans-2-decenal (17.54%), 2-decen-1-ol (12.33%), cyclodecane (12.15%)C. albicans15.662.5–125Biofilm adhesion; crystal violet[35]
C. dubliniensis31.262.5–125
C. rugosa15.662.5
C. tropicalis31.231.25–250
Croton eluteria (L.) W.Wright
(Euphorbiaceae)
EO: α-pinene (29.37%), β-pinene (19.35%), camphene (10.31%), 1,8-cineole (9.68%)C. albicans40005–500Biofilm formation; confocal laser microscopy[36]
Cupressus sempervirens L.
(Cupressaceae)
EO: sabinene (20.3%), citral (20%), terpinene-4-ol (15.4%), α-pinene (8%)C. albicans2501000Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[33]
C. glabrata31.25250
C. krusei62.562.5
C. orthopsilosis31.25125
C. parapsilosis62.5500
C. tropicalis250500
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf
(Poaceae)
EO: no compositionC. albicans180–36022.5–180Biofilm formation; XTT[37]
Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) W.Watson
(Poaceae)
EO: no compositionC. albicans16,800800Biofilm formation; XTT[38]
Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle
(Poaceae)
EO: citronellal (27.87%),
geraniol (22.77%), geranial (14.54%), citronellol (11.85%), neral (11.21%)
C. albicans10002500–5000Biofilm adhesion; XTT[39]
C. krusei250–5002500
C. parapsilosis500–10005000–10,000
Cyperus articulatus L.
(Cyperaceae)
EO: α-pinene (5.72%), mustakone (5.66%), α-bulnesene (5.02%), α-copaene (4.97%)C. albicans125250Biofilm formation; crystal violet[29]
Eucalyptus sp.
(Myrtaceae)
EO: no compositionC. albicans88Mature biofilm; luminescence[40]
Eucalyptus globulus Labill.
(Myrtaceae)
EO: 1,8-cineole (75.8%), p-cymene (7.5%), α-pinene (7.4%), limonene (6.4%)C. albicans21911,250–22,500Mature biofilm; atomic force microscopy[41]
C. glabrata21911,250–22,500
C. tropicalis88511,250–22,500
EO: no compositionC. albicans8400500Biofilm formation; XTT[38]
Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae)Extract: no compositionC. albicans15.62–31.25156Mature biofilm; scanning electron microscopy[42]
Eugenia leitonii Legrand nom. inval.
(Myrtaceae)
Extract: no compositionC. albicans15.62–250156Mature biofilm; scanning electron microscopy[42]
Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don
(Asteraceae)
EO: α-pinene (27.64%), γ-elemene (23.84%), β-caryophyllene (13.05%), α-longipinene (11.25%)C. albicans600010–500Biofilm formation; confocal laser microscopy[36]
Laserpitium latifolium L.
(Apiaceae)
Extract: laserpitineC. albicans12506300Mature biofilm; luminescence[43]
C. krusei12506300
Laserpitium ochridanum Micevski
(Apiaceae)
Extract: isomontanolide,
montanolide, tarolide
C. albicans500010,000Mature biofilm; luminescence[43]
C. krusei500010,000
Laserpitium zernyi Hayek = L. siler subsp. zernyi (Hayek) Tutin
(Apiaceae)
Extract: isomontanolide,
montanolide, tarolide
C. albicans750015,000Mature biofilm; luminescence[43]
C. krusei750037,500
Lavandula dentata L.
(Lamiaceae)
EO: eucalyptol (42.66%), β-pinene (8.59%), trans-α-bisabolene (6.34%), pinocarveol (6.3%)C. albicans0.15–0.180.045–0.07Mature biofilm; XTT[21]
Lawsonia inermis L.
(Lythraceae)
Extract: no compositionC. albicans102.5–12.5Mature biofilm; MTT[25]
Lippia sidoides Cham.
(Verbenaceae)
EO: thymol (65.76%), p-cymene (17.28%), α-caryophyllene (10.46%), cyclohexanone (6.5%)C. albicans250500Biofilm formation; crystal violet[29]
Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.
(Lauraceae)
EO: limonene (37%), neral (31.4%), citral (12%), linalool (4%)C. albicans5002000Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[33]
C. glabrata2502000
C. krusei62.5250
C. orthopsilosis2502000
C. parapsilosis5001000
C. tropicalis10002000
Mentha × piperita L.
(Lamiaceae)
EO: menthol (32.93%), menthone (24.41%), 1,8-cineole (7.89%)C. albicans1–1010Biofilm formation; MTT[44]
EO: no compositionC. albicans11,600800Biofilm formation; XTT[38]
Mikania glomerata Spreng
(Asteraceae)
EO: germacrene D (38.29%), α-caryophyllene (9.49%), bicyclogermacrene (7.98%), caryophyllene oxide (4.28%)C. albicans250500Biofilm formation; crystal violet[29]
Myrtus communis L.
(Myrtaceae)
EO: α-pinene (39.8%), 1,8-cineole (24.8%), limonene (10.7%), linalool (6.4%)C. albicans1250–10,000None or 1250No data; no data[45]
C. parapsilosis1250 to >16,0001250
C. tropicalis1250–16,0001250
Ononis spinosa L.
(Fabaceae)
Extract: kaempherol-O-dihexoside, kaempherol-O-hexoside-pentoside, kaempherol-O-hexoside, quercetin-O-hexoside-pentoside, acetylquercetin-O-hexosideC. albicans62010,000Mature biofilm; luminescence[46]
C. krusei6205000
C. tropicalis31010,000
Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.
(Geraniaceae)
EO: geraniol (42.3%), linalool (20.1%), citronellol (11.1%), menthone (8.0%)C. albicans1254000–8000Mature biofilm; XTT[47]
Piper claussenianum (Miq.) C. DC.
(Piperaceae)
EO: nerolidolsC. albicans4100–96002400–12,600Mature biofilm; MTT[48]
Portulaca oleracea L.
(Portulacaceae)
Extract: no compositionC. albicans1012.5Mature biofilm; MTT[25]
Punica granatum L.
(Lythraceae)
Extract: ellagic acidC. albicans1000100–750Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; crystal violet[49]
Santolina impressa Hoffmanns. & Link
(Asteraceae)
EO: β-pinene (22.5%), 1,8-cineole (10.0%), limonene (9.1%), camphor (8.1%), β-phellandrene (8.0%)C. albicans54070–1050Biofilm formation; XTT[50]
Satureja hortensis L.
(Lamiaceae)
EO: thymol (45.9%),
gamma-terpinen (16.71%), carvacrol (12.81%), p-cymene (9.61%)
C. albicans200–400400–4800Biofilm adhesion, formation, and mature biofilm; MTT[51]
Satureja macrosiphon (Coss.) = Micromeria macrosiphon Coss.
(Lamiaceae)
EO: linalool (28.46%), borneol (16.22%), terpinene-4-ol (14.58%), cis-sabinene hydrate (12.96%)C. albicans0.06–40.06–8Biofilm formation; XTT[22]
C. dubliniensis0.25–42–8
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry = Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S.G.Harrison
(Myrtaceae)
EO: no compositionC. albicans100–20050Biofilm formation; XTT[37]
EO: no compositionC. albicans48,0003300Biofilm formation; XTT[38]
Thymus vulgaris L.
(Lamiaceae)
EO: thymol (54.73%), carvacrol (12.42%), terpineol (4.00%), nerol acetate (2.86%), fenchol (0.5%)C. albicans1.56–2512.5Biofilm formation; absorbance, crystal violet, and scanning electron microscopy[26]
C. tropicalis25–5012.5
Warburgia ugandensis Sprague
(Canellaceae)
Extract: ugandenial A, warburganal, polygodial, alpha-linolenic acid ALAC. albicansLack of data1000Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT and confocal laser microscopy[52]
C. glabrataLack of data1000
Ziziphora tenuior L.
(Lamiaceae)
EO: pulegone (46.8%),
p-menth-3-en-8-ol (12.5%),
isomenthone (6.6%),
8-hydroxymenthone (6.2%),
isomenthol (4.7%)
C. albicans1.252.5Mature biofilm; XTT[23]
Zuccagnia punctata L.
(Fabaceae)
Extract: no compositionC. albicans400100Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT and crystal violet[53]
Legend: MIC—minimal inhibitory concentration; XTT—reduction assay of 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[carbonyl(phenylamino)]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide; MTT—reduction assay of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide [54,55].
Table 2. Antifungal and antibiofilm activity of plant compounds.
Table 2. Antifungal and antibiofilm activity of plant compounds.
Active CompoundExample of Plant OriginTargeted FungusMICs
(mg/L, mL/L)
Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by at Least 50% (mg/L, mL/L)Inhibited Stage of Biofilm; Method of Biofilm DetectionRef.
Antidesmone
(alkaloid)
Waltheria indica,
W. brachypetala
C. albicans3216Mature biofilm; XTT[63]
C. glabrata>3216
C. krusei1616
C. parapsilosis416
C. tropicalis>3216
Anisaldehyde
(phenolic aldehyde)
Pimpinella anisum ,
Foeniculum vulgare
C. albicans500500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
Anisic acid
(phenolic acid)
Pimpinella anisum C. albicans40004000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
Anisyl alcohol
(phenolic alcohol)
Pimpinella anisum C. albicans31500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
Baicalein
(flavonoid)
Scutellaria baicalensis,
S. lateriflora
C. albicansNo data4–32Biofilm formation; XTT[62]
Camphene
(monotherpene)
Croton eluteria,
Cinnamomum verum
C. albicansNo data500Biofilm formation; confocal laser microscopy[36]
C. albicans10002000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Camphor
(bicyclic monotherpene)
Cinnamomum camphora,
Artemisia annua
C. albicans125–250Not or 62.5–250Biofilm formation; crystal violet and absorbance[70]
C. glabrata175Not
C. krusei350Not
C. parapsilosis125Not
C. tropicalis175175
Cannabidiol
(cannabinoid)
Cannabis sativaC. albicansNo data12.5–100Biofilm formation; confocal microscopy[66]
Carvacrol
(phenol)
Thymus serpyllum,
Carum carvi,
Origanum vulgare
C. albicans250500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
100–20,000300–1250Mature biofilm; XTT[71]
1000750–1500Biofilm formation; MTT[72]
C. glabrata100–20,000300–1250Mature biofilm; XTT[71]
C. parapsilosis100–20,000300–1250
Carvene/Limonene
(monotherpene)
Citrus × aurantium,
Citrus limon
C. albicans10004000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Carvone/Carvol
(monotherpene)
Carum carvi,
Mentha spicata
C. albicans>4000250Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
β-Caryophyllene
(sesquiterpene)
Helichrysum italicum,
Caryophyllusaromaticus
C. albicansNo data100–500Biofilm formation; confocal laser microscopy[36]
1,4-Cineole
(monotherpene)
Rosmarinus officinalis ,
Thymus vulgaris
C. albicans>40004000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
1,8-Cineole/Eucalyptol
(monotherpene)
Eucalyptus globulus,
Salvia officinalis,
Pinus sylvestris
C. albicans40004000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
84Mature biofilm; luminescence[40]
3000–23,000Not or 3000–23,000Biofilm formation; crystal violet and absorbance[70]
C. glabrata2000Not
C. krusei40002000–4000
C. parapsilosis20001000–2000
C. tropicalis40002000–4000
Cinnamaldehyde
(aldehyde)
Cinnamomum sp.,
Apium graveolens
C. albicans62125Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
50–40025–200Mature biofilm; XTT[58]
Cinnamic acid
(phenolic acid)
Cinnamomum sp. C. albicans20004000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
Citral
(monotherpene)
Melissa officinalis,
Backhousia citriodora
C. albicans5001000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Citronellal
(monotherpene)
Cymbopogon citratus ,
Melissa officinalis
C. albicans5001000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
β-Citronellol
(monotherpene)
Melissa officinalis,
Pelargonium roseum
C. albicans5001000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Cuminaldehyde
(monotherpene)
Carum carvi ,
Cinnamomum verum
C. albicans1000 to >40006000–7000Biofilm formation; MTT[72]
p-Cymene
(monotherpene)
Thymus vulgaris,
Eucalyptus sp.
C. albicans20004000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
8-Deoxoantidesmone
(alkaloid)
Waltheria indicaC. albicans1632Mature biofilm; XTT[63]
C. glabrata>3232
C. krusei3232
C. parapsilosis3232
C. tropicalis>3232
2′,4′-Dihydroxy-3′-methoxychalcone
(chalcone)
Zuccagnia punctata,
Oxytropis falcata
C. albicans10025Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT and crystal violet[53]
Dioscin
(steroidal saponin)
Dioscorea sp.,
Chamaecostus
C. albicans3.9–15.623.9–31.25Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; MTT[31]
Ellagic acid
(polyphenol)
Punica granatum L.C. albicans75–10025–40Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; crystal violet[49]
Emodin
(anthraquinone)
Rheum palmatum,
Frangula alnus
C. albicans12.5–50Not or 100–400Biofilm adhesion; MTT[73]
4α,5α-Epoxy-10α,14H-1-epi-inuviscolide
(sesquiterpene lactone)
Carpesium macrocephalumC. albicans>12838Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[67]
Eugenol
(phenol)
Syzygium aromaticum ,
Cinnamomum sp.
C. albicans50–40012.5–200Mature biofilm; XTT[58]
250500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
500500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
120010,000–80,000Mature biofilm; XTT[59]
Farnesol
(sesquiterpene)
Tilia sp.,
Cymbopogon sp.
C. albicans1000500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
1000500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Gallic acid
(phenolic acid)
Polygonum sp.,
Buchenavia tomentosa
C. albicans50002500Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; culture[30]
Geraniol
(monotherpene)
Pelargonium graveolens,
Rosa sp.
C. albicans10001000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
C. albicans100–20,000300–1250Mature biofilm; XTT[71]
C. albicansNo data1000–8000Mature biofilm; XTT[47]
C. glabrata100–20,000300–1250Mature biofilm; XTT[71]
C. parapsilosis100–20,000300–1250
Guaiacol
(phenol)
Guaiacum officinale ,
Apium graveolens
C. albicans5001000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
Hydroxychavicol
(phenol)
Piper betleC. albicans125–500125–1000Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[74]
β-Ionone
(carotenoid)
Lawsonia inermis ,
Camellia sinensis
C. albicans250250Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Isomontanolide
(sesquiterpenic lactone)
Laserpitium ochridanum,
L. zernyi
C. albicans50250Mature biofilm; luminescence[43]
C. krusei200250
Isopulegol
(monotherpene)
Mentha rotundifolia,
Melissa officinalis
C. albicans>4000250Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Ivalin
(sesquiterpene lactone)
Geigeria aspera,
Carpesium macrocephalum
C. albicans>12815.4Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[67]
Laserpitine
(sesquiterpene lactone)
Laserpitium latifolium,
Laserpitiumhalleri
C. albicans200400Mature biofilm; luminescence[43]
C. krusei200400
Lichochalcone A
(chalconoid)
Glycyrrhiza sp.C. albicans6.25–12.50.2–20Biofilm formation; crystal violet[61]
Linalool
(monotherpene)
Lavandula officinalis,
Pelargonium graveolens
C. albicansNo data100–500Biofilm formation; confocal laser microscopy[36]
20001000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
No data1000–8000Mature biofilm; XTT[47]
α-Longipinene
(sesquiterpene)
Croton eluteria,
Helichrysum italicum
C. albicansNo data100–500Biofilm formation; confocal laser microscopy[36]
Menthol
(monotherpene)
Mentha spp.C. albicans>40002000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
250010,000–80,000Mature biofilm; XTT[59]
Montanolide
(sesquiterpene lactone)
Laserpitium ochridanum,
L. zernyi
C. albicans200400Mature biofilm; luminescence[43]
C. krusei200400
Morin
(flavonoid)
Prunus dulcis ,
Morus alba
C. albicans15037.5–600Biofilm formation; crystal violet[75]
Myrcene
(monotherpene)
Humulus lupulus,
Cannabis sativa
C. albicans10002000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Nerol
(monotherpene)
Citrus × aurantium,
Humulus lupulus
C. albicans2000500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Nerolidols
(sesquiterpene)
Citrus × aurantium,
Piper claussenianum
C. albicans18,600–62,5002500–10,000Mature biofilm; MTT[48]
α-Pinene
(monotherpene)
Pinus sylvestris,
Picea abies
C. albicans31253125Biofilm formation; XTT[76]
β-Pinene
(monotherpene)
Pinus sylvestris,
Picea abies
C. albicans20004000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
187187Biofilm formation; XTT[76]
Polygodial
(sesquiterpene)
Warburgia ugandensis, Polygonum hydropiperC. albicans4.110.8Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT and confocal laser microscopy[52]
C. glabrata94.150.6–61.9
Pterostilbene
(polyphenol)
Pterocarpus marsupium, Pterocarpus santalinus,
Vitis vinifera
C. albicansNo data8–32Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[65]
Riccardin D
(macrocyclic bisbibenzyl)
Dumortiera hirsutaC. albicans168–64Mature biofilm; XTT[64]
Salicylaldehyde
(phenolic aldehyde)
Filipendula ulmaria,
Fagopyrum esculentum
C. albicans31125Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
Salicylic acid
(phenolic acid)
Salix sp.,
Filipendula ulmaria
C. albicans40002000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
Scopoletin
(cumarin)
Mitracarpus frigidus,
Scopolia carniola
C. tropicalis5050Biofilm adhesion, formation, and mature biofilm; absorbance and digital scanning[77]
6-Shogaol
(phenylalkane)
Zingiber officinaleC. auris32–6416–64Mature biofilm; crystal violet[78]
Tarolide
(sesquiterpene lactone)
Laserpitium ochridanum,
L. zernyi
C. albicans4001000Mature biofilm; luminescence[43]
C. krusei4001000
Telekin
(sesquiterpene lactone)
Carpesium macrocephalum,
Telekia speciose
C. albicans>12836Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[67]
Terpinolene
(terpene)
Cannabis sativa,
Citrus limon
C. albicans20004000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
5,7,3′,4′-Tetramethoxyflavone
(flavonoid)
Psiadia punctulate,
Kaempferia parviflora
C. albicans10040Biofilm formation; crystal violet[79]
α-Thujone
(monotherpene)
Artemisia absinthium,
Tanacetum vulgare
C. albicans>4000500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
Thymol
(phenol)
Thymus vulgaris,
Trachyspermum copticum
C. albicans250250Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[69]
1.56–503.12Biofilm formation; absorbance, crystal violet, and scanning electron microscopy[26]
32–128128Biofilm adhesion and mature biofilm; XTT[80]
100–20,000300–1250Mature biofilm; XTT[71]
125125–250Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT[81]
12005000–80,000Mature biofilm; XTT[59]
C. tropicalis1.56–5012.5Biofilm formation; absorbance, crystal violet, and scanning electron microscopy[26]
C. glabrata100–20,000300–1250Mature biofilm; XTT[71]
C. parapsilosis100–20,000300–1250
Tn-AFP1
(protein)
Trapa natansC. tropicalis3216Mature biofilm; XTT[82]
5,6,8-Trihydroxy-7,4′
dimethoxy flavone
(flavonoid)
Thymus membranaceus subsp. membranaceus,
Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia
C. albicans390390Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; MTT[83]
5(R)-Vanessine
(alkaloid)
Waltheria indicaC. albicans3216Mature biofilm; XTT[63]
C. glabrata>3216
C. krusei3216
C. parapsilosis>3216
C. tropicalis>3216
Vanillic acid
(phenolic acid)
Angelica sinensis ,
Solanum tuberosum
C. albicans>40004000Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
Vanillin
(phenol)
Vanilla planifoliaC. albicans1000500Mature biofilm; XTT, crystal violet, and inverted light microscopy[68]
Waltheriones
(alkaloid)
Waltheria indica,
W.viscosissima
C. albicans4–328–32Mature biofilm; XTT[63]
C. glabrata32 or >328–32
C. krusei16–32 or >328–32
C. parapsilosis2–32 or >328–32
C. tropicalis32 or >328–32
Warburganal
(sesquiterpene)
Warburgia sp. C. albicans44.5Biofilm formation and mature biofilm; XTT and confocal laser microscopy[52]
C. glabrata72–72.649.1–55.9
Legend: MIC—minimal inhibitory concentration; XTT—reduction assay of 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[carbonyl(phenylamino)]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide; MTT—reduction assay of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide [54,55].
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