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Review

Associations between Cryptococcus Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Clinical Parameters of Human Disease: A Review

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
3
Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joseph M. Bliss
J. Fungi 2021, 7(4), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040260
Received: 9 March 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 25 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Defense against Fungi)
The genus Cryptococcus contains two primary species complexes that are significant opportunistic human fungal pathogens: C. neoformans and C. gattii. In humans, cryptococcosis can manifest in many ways, but most often results in either pulmonary or central nervous system disease. Patients with cryptococcosis can display a variety of symptoms on a spectrum of severity because of the interaction between yeast and host. The bulk of our knowledge regarding Cryptococcus and the mechanisms of disease stem from in vitro experiments and in vivo animal models that make a fair attempt, but do not recapitulate the conditions inside the human host. To better understand the dynamics of initiation and progression in cryptococcal disease, it is important to study the genetic and phenotypic differences in the context of human infection to identify the human and fungal risk factors that contribute to pathogenesis and poor clinical outcomes. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the different clinical presentations and health outcomes that are associated with pathogenicity and virulence of cryptococcal strains with respect to specific genotypes and phenotypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cryptococcus; genotype; phenotype; virulence; cryptococcal meningitis; pulmonary cryptococcosis; clinical presentation; clinical outcomes Cryptococcus; genotype; phenotype; virulence; cryptococcal meningitis; pulmonary cryptococcosis; clinical presentation; clinical outcomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Montoya, M.C.; Magwene, P.M.; Perfect, J.R. Associations between Cryptococcus Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Clinical Parameters of Human Disease: A Review. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 260. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040260

AMA Style

Montoya MC, Magwene PM, Perfect JR. Associations between Cryptococcus Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Clinical Parameters of Human Disease: A Review. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(4):260. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040260

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montoya, Marhiah C., Paul M. Magwene, and John R. Perfect. 2021. "Associations between Cryptococcus Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Clinical Parameters of Human Disease: A Review" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 4: 260. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040260

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