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Review

Complex and Controversial Roles of Eicosanoids in Fungal Pathogenesis

1
Laboratório de Bioquímica e Imunologia das Micoses, Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto Biomédico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói 24210-130, RJ, Brazil
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Departments of Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) and Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
3
Department of Microbiology, University of Szeged, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
4
MTA-SZTE Lendület Mycobiome Research Group, University of Szeged, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joseph M. Bliss
J. Fungi 2021, 7(4), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040254
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 22 March 2021 / Published: 28 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Defense against Fungi)
The prevalence of fungal infections has increased in immunocompromised patients, leading to millions of deaths annually. Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, such as eicosanoids, play important roles in regulating innate and adaptative immune function, particularly since they can function as virulence factors enhancing fungal colonization and are produced by mammalian and lower eukaryotes, such as yeasts and other fungi (Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans). C. albicans produces prostaglandins (PG), Leukotrienes (LT) and Resolvins (Rvs), whereas the first two have been well documented in Cryptococcus sp. and H. capsulatum. In this review, we cover the eicosanoids produced by the host and fungi during fungal infections. These fungal-derived PGs have immunomodulatory functions analogous to their mammalian counterparts. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) protects C. albicans and C. parapsilosis cells from the phagocytic and killing activity of macrophages. H. capsulatum PGs augment the fungal burden and host mortality rates in histoplasmosis. However, PGD2 potentiates the effects and production of LTB4, which is a very potent neutrophil chemoattractant that enhances host responses. Altogether, these data suggest that eicosanoids, mainly PGE2, may serve as a new potential target to combat diverse fungal infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: eicosanoids; immune response; fungi; fungal eicosanoids; pathogenesis eicosanoids; immune response; fungi; fungal eicosanoids; pathogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mendoza, S.R.; Zamith-Miranda, D.; Takács, T.; Gacser, A.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Guimarães, A.J. Complex and Controversial Roles of Eicosanoids in Fungal Pathogenesis. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 254. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040254

AMA Style

Mendoza SR, Zamith-Miranda D, Takács T, Gacser A, Nosanchuk JD, Guimarães AJ. Complex and Controversial Roles of Eicosanoids in Fungal Pathogenesis. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(4):254. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040254

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mendoza, Susana R., Daniel Zamith-Miranda, Tamás Takács, Attila Gacser, Joshua D. Nosanchuk, and Allan J. Guimarães. 2021. "Complex and Controversial Roles of Eicosanoids in Fungal Pathogenesis" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 4: 254. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7040254

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