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Article

Diversity and Evolution of Entomocorticium (Russulales, Peniophoraceae), a Genus of Bark Beetle Mutualists Derived from Free-Living, Wood Rotting Peniophora

1
School of Forest, Fisheries and Geomatics Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
2
Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458, USA
3
Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
4
National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires C1425FQB, Argentina
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Patagonian Andes Forest Research and Extension Centre (CIEFAP), Esquel 9200, Argentina
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Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
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Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center, Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Newton, GA 30602, USA
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Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Section for Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
10
Biology Department, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chengshu Wang
J. Fungi 2021, 7(12), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7121043
Received: 21 October 2021 / Revised: 30 November 2021 / Accepted: 3 December 2021 / Published: 6 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dimensions of Tropical Fungal Diversity)
Symbiosis between insects and fungi arose multiple times during the evolution of both groups, and some of the most biologically diverse and economically important are mutualisms in which the insects cultivate and feed on fungi. Among these are bark beetles, whose ascomycetous cultivars are better known and studied than their frequently-overlooked and poorly understood basidiomycetous partners. In this study, we propose five new species of Entomocorticium, fungal mutualists in the Russulales (Basidiomycota) that are mutualistic symbionts of scolytine beetles. We have isolated these fungi from the beetle mycangia, which are structures adapted for the selective storage and transportation of fungal mutualists. Herein, we present the most complete phylogeny of the closely related genera Entomocorticium and Peniophora and provide insights into how an insect-associated taxon (Entomocorticium) evolved from within a wood-decaying, wind-dispersed lineage (Peniophora). Our results indicate that following a transition from angiosperms to gymnosperms, fungal domestication by beetles facilitated the evolution and diversification of Entomocorticium. We additionally propose four new species: Entomocorticium fibulatum Araújo, Li & Hulcr, sp. nov.; E. belizense Araújo, Li & Hulcr, sp. nov.; E. perryae Araújo, Li & Hulcr, sp. nov.; and E. macrovesiculatum Araújo, Li, Six & Hulcr, sp. nov. Our findings highlight the fact that insect-fungi associations remain an understudied field and that these associations harbor a large reservoir of novel fungal species. View Full-Text
Keywords: wood-decaying fungi; Russulales; Peniophoraceae; mutualism; new species wood-decaying fungi; Russulales; Peniophoraceae; mutualism; new species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Araújo, J.P.M.; Li, Y.; Six, D.; Rajchenberg, M.; Smith, M.E.; Johnson, A.J.; Klepzig, K.D.; Crous, P.W.; Leal-Dutra, C.A.; Skelton, J.; Adams, S.N.; Hulcr, J. Diversity and Evolution of Entomocorticium (Russulales, Peniophoraceae), a Genus of Bark Beetle Mutualists Derived from Free-Living, Wood Rotting Peniophora. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7121043

AMA Style

Araújo JPM, Li Y, Six D, Rajchenberg M, Smith ME, Johnson AJ, Klepzig KD, Crous PW, Leal-Dutra CA, Skelton J, Adams SN, Hulcr J. Diversity and Evolution of Entomocorticium (Russulales, Peniophoraceae), a Genus of Bark Beetle Mutualists Derived from Free-Living, Wood Rotting Peniophora. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(12):1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7121043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Araújo, João P.M., You Li, Diana Six, Mario Rajchenberg, Matthew E. Smith, Andrew J. Johnson, Kier D. Klepzig, Pedro W. Crous, Caio A. Leal-Dutra, James Skelton, Sawyer N. Adams, and Jiri Hulcr. 2021. "Diversity and Evolution of Entomocorticium (Russulales, Peniophoraceae), a Genus of Bark Beetle Mutualists Derived from Free-Living, Wood Rotting Peniophora" Journal of Fungi 7, no. 12: 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7121043

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