Next Article in Journal
Host Defense Peptides as Templates for Antifungal Drug Development
Previous Article in Journal
Fosmanogepix: A Review of the First-in-Class Broad Spectrum Agent for the Treatment of Invasive Fungal Infections
Previous Article in Special Issue
Seven New Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Xanthoquinodins from Jugulospora vestita
Open AccessArticle

Production of Bio-Based Pigments from Food Processing Industry By-Products (Apple, Pomegranate, Black Carrot, Red Beet Pulps) Using Aspergillus carbonarius

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin 33343, Turkey
2
Environment and Clean Production Institute, The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli 41470, Turkey
3
Département Hygiène Sécurité Environnement (HSE), IUT La Réunion, Université de La Réunion, 40 avenue de Soweto, BP 373, F-97455 Saint-Pierre, Réunion, France
4
Laboratoire de Chimie et de Biotechnologie des Produits Naturels, Chemistry and Biotechnology of Natural Products (CHEMBIOPRO), Université de La Réunion, ESIROI Agroalimentaire, 15 Avenue René Cassin, CS 92003, F-97744 Saint-Denis, Réunion, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040240
Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 20 October 2020 / Published: 22 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pigments 2021)
Food processing industry by-products (apple, pomegranate, black carrot, and red beet pulps) were evaluated as raw materials in pigment production by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus carbonarius. The effect of fermentation conditions (solid and submerged-state), incubation period (3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 d), initial substrate pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5), and pulp particle size (<1.4, 1.4–2.0, 2–4, and >4 mm) on fungal pigment production were tested to optimize the conditions. Pigment extraction analysis carried out under solid-state fermentation conditions showed that the maximum pigment production was determined as 9.21 ± 0.59 absorbance unit at the corresponding wavelength per gram (AU/g) dry fermented mass (dfm) for pomegranate pulp (PP) by A. carbonarius for 5 d. Moreover, the highest pigment production was obtained as 61.84 ± 2.16 AU/g dfm as yellowish brown at initial pH 6.5 with < 1.4 mm of substrate particle size for 15-d incubation period. GC×GC-TOFMS results indicate that melanin could be one of the main products as a pigment. SEM images showed that melanin could localize on the conidia of A. carbonarius. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus carbonarius; bioconversion; food processing industry by-product valorization; filamentous fungi; bio-based pigment Aspergillus carbonarius; bioconversion; food processing industry by-product valorization; filamentous fungi; bio-based pigment
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Bezirhan Arikan, E.; Canli, O.; Caro, Y.; Dufossé, L.; Dizge, N. Production of Bio-Based Pigments from Food Processing Industry By-Products (Apple, Pomegranate, Black Carrot, Red Beet Pulps) Using Aspergillus carbonarius. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 240. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040240

AMA Style

Bezirhan Arikan E, Canli O, Caro Y, Dufossé L, Dizge N. Production of Bio-Based Pigments from Food Processing Industry By-Products (Apple, Pomegranate, Black Carrot, Red Beet Pulps) Using Aspergillus carbonarius. Journal of Fungi. 2020; 6(4):240. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040240

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bezirhan Arikan, Ezgi; Canli, Oltan; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent; Dizge, Nadir. 2020. "Production of Bio-Based Pigments from Food Processing Industry By-Products (Apple, Pomegranate, Black Carrot, Red Beet Pulps) Using Aspergillus carbonarius" J. Fungi 6, no. 4: 240. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6040240

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop