Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is considered the most important sequela developed in patients suffering from the chronic form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), which leads to the loss of respiratory function in 50% of cases; this residual pulmonary abnormality is present even after antifungal treatment. To date, there is no effective treatment for PF. However, the use of antifungal drugs in combination with other antibiotics or immunomodulatory compounds, as well as biological therapies that include a monoclonal antibody specific to neutrophils, or prophylactic vaccination employing a recombinant antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
that successfully attenuated PF, has been reported. Additionally, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in combination with antifungal therapy slightly reduced the inflammatory response and profibrotic molecules induced by P. brasiliensis
infection. In this review, I report experimental findings from several studies aiming to identify promising therapeutic strategies for treating PF developed in PCM.
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