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The Quiet and Underappreciated Rise of Drug-Resistant Invasive Fungal Pathogens

1
Center for Discovery and Innovation, Hackensack Meridian Health, Nutley, NJ 07110, USA
2
Institute of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
3
Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
4
Division of Mycology, University of Çukurova, 01330 Adana, Turkey
5
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, 1012 WX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
6
Life Sciences Programme, Barcelona, Supercomputing Center (BSC-CNS), Jordi Girona, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
7
Mechanisms of Disease Programme, Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB), 08024 Barcelona, Spain
8
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2020, 6(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6030138
Received: 5 July 2020 / Revised: 22 July 2020 / Accepted: 11 August 2020 / Published: 18 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antifungal Resistance)
Human fungal pathogens are attributable to a significant economic burden and mortality worldwide. Antifungal treatments, although limited in number, play a pivotal role in decreasing mortality and morbidities posed by invasive fungal infections (IFIs). However, the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant Candida auris and Candida glabrata and acquiring invasive infections due to azole-resistant C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus spp. in azole-naïve patients pose a serious health threat considering the limited number of systemic antifungals available to treat IFIs. Although advancing for major fungal pathogens, the understanding of fungal attributes contributing to antifungal resistance is just emerging for several clinically important MDR fungal pathogens. Further complicating the matter are the distinct differences in antifungal resistance mechanisms among various fungal species in which one or more mechanisms may contribute to the resistance phenotype. In this review, we attempt to summarize the burden of antifungal resistance for selected non-albicansCandida and clinically important Aspergillus species together with their phylogenetic placement on the tree of life. Moreover, we highlight the different molecular mechanisms between antifungal tolerance and resistance, and comprehensively discuss the molecular mechanisms of antifungal resistance in a species level. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida glabrata; Candida parapsilosis; Candida tropicalis; Candida auris; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus fumigatus; antifungal resistance mechanisms Candida glabrata; Candida parapsilosis; Candida tropicalis; Candida auris; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus fumigatus; antifungal resistance mechanisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arastehfar, A.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Garcia-Rubio, R.; Daneshnia, F.; Ilkit, M.; Boekhout, T.; Gabaldon, T.; Perlin, D.S. The Quiet and Underappreciated Rise of Drug-Resistant Invasive Fungal Pathogens. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 138. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6030138

AMA Style

Arastehfar A, Lass-Flörl C, Garcia-Rubio R, Daneshnia F, Ilkit M, Boekhout T, Gabaldon T, Perlin DS. The Quiet and Underappreciated Rise of Drug-Resistant Invasive Fungal Pathogens. Journal of Fungi. 2020; 6(3):138. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6030138

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arastehfar, Amir; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Garcia-Rubio, Rocio; Daneshnia, Farnaz; Ilkit, Macit; Boekhout, Teun; Gabaldon, Toni; Perlin, David S. 2020. "The Quiet and Underappreciated Rise of Drug-Resistant Invasive Fungal Pathogens" J. Fungi 6, no. 3: 138. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6030138

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