species are both opportunistic fungal pathogens and common members of the human mycobiome. Over the years, the main focus of the fungal field has been on understanding the pathogenic potential and disease manifestation of these organisms. Therefore, understanding of their commensal lifestyle, interactions with host epithelial barriers, and initial transition into pathogenesis is less developed. In this review, we will describe the current knowledge on the commensal lifestyle of these fungi, how they are able to adhere to and colonize host epithelial surfaces, compete with other members of the microbiota, and interact with the host immune response, as well as their transition into opportunistic pathogens by invading the gastrointestinal epithelium.
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