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Open AccessReview

Immune Parameters for Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring in Invasive Mold Infection

by Jeffrey D. Jenks 1,2,*, Stephen A Rawlings 2,3, Carol Garcia-Vidal 4, Philipp Koehler 5,6, Toine Mercier 7, Juergen Prattes 8, Cornelia Lass-Flörl 9, M Teresa Martin-Gomez 10, Dieter Buchheidt 11, Livio Pagano 12, Jean-Pierre Gangneux 13, Frank L. van de Veerdonk 14, Mihai G. Netea 14, Agostinho Carvalho 15,16 and Martin Hoenigl 2,3,8,* on behalf of ECMM working group Immunologic Markers for Treatment Monitoring and Diagnosis in Invasive Mold Infection
1
Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
2
Clinical and Translational Fungal—Working Group, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3
Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
4
Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Clinic-IDIBAPS, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
5
University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine, Department I of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Aachen Bonn Cologne Duesseldorf (CIO ABCD), Excellence Center for Medical Mycology (ECMM), University Hospital of Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany
6
Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, 50931 Cologne, Germany
7
Department of Hematology, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
8
Section of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine and Division of Pulmonology, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
9
Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
10
Department of Microbiology, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
11
Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 68167 Mannheim, Germany
12
Department of Hematology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
13
CHU de Rennes, Univ Rennes, Inserm, Irset (Institut de recherche en santé, environnement et travail)—UMR_S, 1085 Rennes, France
14
Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
15
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
16
ICVS/3B’s—PT Government Associate Laboratory, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2019, 5(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof5040116
Received: 15 November 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 13 December 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics)
Infections caused by invasive molds, including Aspergillus spp., can be difficult to diagnose and remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thus, early diagnosis and targeted systemic antifungal treatment remains the most important predictive factor for a successful outcome in immunocompromised individuals with invasive mold infections. Diagnosis remains difficult due to low sensitivities of diagnostic tests including culture and other mycological tests for mold pathogens, particularly in patients on mold-active antifungal prophylaxis. As a result, antifungal treatment is rarely targeted and reliable markers for treatment monitoring and outcome prediction are missing. Thus, there is a need for improved markers to diagnose invasive mold infections, monitor response to treatment, and assist in determining when antifungal therapy should be escalated, switched, or can be stopped. This review focuses on the role of immunologic markers and specifically cytokines in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of invasive mold infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus; invasive aspergillosis; invasive mold infections; immune response; Mucormycosis; prognosis; mold-reactive T-cells; interleukin 6; interleukin 8; interleukin 10 Aspergillus; invasive aspergillosis; invasive mold infections; immune response; Mucormycosis; prognosis; mold-reactive T-cells; interleukin 6; interleukin 8; interleukin 10
MDPI and ACS Style

Jenks, J.D.; Rawlings, S.A.; Garcia-Vidal, C.; Koehler, P.; Mercier, T.; Prattes, J.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Martin-Gomez, M.T.; Buchheidt, D.; Pagano, L.; Gangneux, J.-P.; van de Veerdonk, F.L.; Netea, M.G.; Carvalho, A.; Hoenigl, M., on behalf of ECMM working group Immunologic Markers for Treatment Monitoring and Diagnosis in Invasive Mold Infection; Immune Parameters for Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring in Invasive Mold Infection. J. Fungi 2019, 5, 116.

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