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The Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Tajikistan

Department of Phthisiopneumology, Tajik State Medical University, 734003 Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections, 1208 Geneva, Switzerland
Research Scientific Institute of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health and Social Protection of the population, 734025 Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Republican Center of the Protection Population from Tuberculosis Ministry of Health and Social Protection of the Population, 734000 Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Secretariat of the National Coordination Committee to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, 734018 Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Republican Center of Medical Statistics, Ministry of Health and Social Protection of the Population, 734025 Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9NT, UK
National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Southmoor Road, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2019, 5(3), 68;
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
PDF [1714 KB, uploaded 21 July 2019]


Tajikistan is a low-income country in Middle Asia with a population of 8.9 million people. Five percent of the population lives on less than 1.9 USD a day and 54% live on less than 5.5 USD a day. We have estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Tajikistan. It was estimated that 168,834 Tajik women develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Among HIV-positive patients, we estimate 490 patients with oesophageal candidiasis and 1260 patients with oral candidiasis, 41 cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 210 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia annually. According to our estimations there are 774 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) as a sequel of tuberculosis; CPA may occur as a consequence of multiple pulmonary conditions and the total prevalence of 4161 cases was estimated. We have estimated 6008 cased of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 7930 cases of severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS), and 137 fungal asthma deaths annually. We have estimated 445 cases of candidemia a year applying a low European rate. There are approximately 283 cases of invasive aspergillosis annually. There are 189,662 (2.1% of the population) people suffering from serious fungal infections in Tajikistan. Hence, improving diagnostics is the first step of understanding a scale of the fungal burden. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tajikistan; fungal infection; aspergillosis; candidiasis; epidemiology Tajikistan; fungal infection; aspergillosis; candidiasis; epidemiology

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Bobokhojaev, O.I.; Osmanov, A.; Aliev, S.P.; Radjabzoda, A.S.; Avgonov, Z.T.; Manonov, S.T.; Denning, D.W. The Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Tajikistan. J. Fungi 2019, 5, 68.

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