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J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040129

Antifungal Resistance: Specific Focus on Multidrug Resistance in Candida auris and Secondary Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

1
Department of Medical Microbiology, Mycology Laboratory, Hacettepe University Medical School, TR-06100 Ankara, Turkey
2
Center for Medical Mycology, Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital (CWZ), 6532 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
4
Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, 6532 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts)
Full-Text   |   PDF [272 KB, uploaded 5 December 2018]

Abstract

Antifungal resistance is a topic of concern, particularly for specific fungal species and drugs. Among these are the multidrug-resistant Candida auris and azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus. While the knowledge on molecular mechanisms of resistance is now accumulating, further data are also available for the clinical implications and the extent of correlation of in vitro resistance to clinical outcomes. This review article summarizes the epidemiology of C. auris infections, animal models focusing on the activity of novel antifungal compounds in C. auris infections, virulence factors, and the mechanisms of antifungal resistance for this multi-resistant Candida species. Regarding A. fumigatus, the significance of azoles in the treatment of A. fumigatus infections, reference methods available for the detection of resistance in vitro, molecular mechanisms of secondary azole resistance, routes of acquisition, and clinical implications of in vitro resistance are covered to provide guidance for the current status of azole resistance in A. fumigatus. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida auris; Aspergillus fumigatus; antifungal resistance; multidrug resistance; mechanisms of antifungal resistance Candida auris; Aspergillus fumigatus; antifungal resistance; multidrug resistance; mechanisms of antifungal resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Arikan-Akdagli, S.; Ghannoum, M.; Meis, J.F. Antifungal Resistance: Specific Focus on Multidrug Resistance in Candida auris and Secondary Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 129.

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