Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Burden of Severe Fungal Infections in Burkina Faso
Previous Article in Journal
Innate Immunity against Cryptococcus, from Recognition to Elimination
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Burden of Fungal Diseases in Romania
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

An Estimate of Severe and Chronic Fungal Diseases in the Republic of Kazakhstan

National Scientific Center for Oncology and Transplantology, Astana 020000, Kazakhstan
The National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshave Hospital, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE), Cheshire SK10 9AR, UK
Department of Clinical Mycology, Allergy and Immunology, I. Metchnikov North Western State Medical University, St. Petersburg 191015, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 34;
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Burden in Different Countries)
PDF [215 KB, uploaded 8 March 2018]


Our work aimed to generate a preliminary estimation of severe and chronic fungal diseases in the Republic of Kazakhstan with a model proposed by LIFE (Leading International Fungal Education). Calculations were carried out on data from 2015. Published results of studies of mycoses in Kazakhstan were identified; in the absence of national data from the scientific literature, the frequency of life-threatening and serious mycoses in defined groups of patients at risk from other countries were taken into account. We also used analogous estimations of mycoses in the Russian Federation. We estimate that 300,824 patients (1.7% of the population) were affected by severe and chronic mycotic diseases. There were an estimated 15,172 cases of acute mycoses, notably tinea capitis in children (11,847), Pneumocystis pneumonia and invasive candidiasis, and 285,652 of chronic fungal diseases. The most frequent were chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (273,258 cases) and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (6231). There is uncertainty about the prevalence of asthma in adults; the official number is 12,478 patients, but a prevalence estimate of 1.47% from a WHO consortium yields a prevalence of ~170,000 affected. We have used the official figures to generate the prevalence of fungal asthma, but it is likely to be a significant underestimate. Conclusion: Results of investigation indicate significant prevalence of severe and chronic mycoses in the Republic of Kazakhstan. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE) Program; mycoses; fungal diseases; Republic of Kazakhstan Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE) Program; mycoses; fungal diseases; Republic of Kazakhstan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kemaykin, V.M.; Tabinbaev, N.B.; Khudaibergenova, M.S.; Olifirovich, A.A.; Abdrakhmanova, L.M.; Denning, D.W.; Klimko, N. An Estimate of Severe and Chronic Fungal Diseases in the Republic of Kazakhstan. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 34.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Fungi EISSN 2309-608X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top